Filed Pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2)
Registration Statement No. 333-259205








 

Pricing Supplement

Dated September 23, 2021
to the Product Prospectus Supplement No. CCBN-1, the Prospectus Supplement and the Prospectus, Each Dated September 14, 2021

$2,860,000
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes Linked
to the iShares® Russell 2000 Value ETF, Due March
28, 2023
Royal Bank of Canada





Royal Bank of Canada is offering Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes (the “Notes”) linked to the iShares® Russell 2000 Value ETF (the “Reference Asset”). The Notes are our senior unsecured obligations, will pay a quarterly Contingent Coupon at the rate and under the circumstances specified below, and will have the terms described in the documents described above, as supplemented or modified by this pricing supplement.
The Notes do not guarantee any return of principal at maturity. Any payments on the Notes are subject to our credit risk.
Investing in the Notes involves a number of risks. See “Selected Risk Considerations” beginning on page P-7 of this pricing supplement, and “Risk Factors” beginning on page PS-4 of the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 and page S-2 of the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021.
The Notes will not constitute deposits insured by the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation, the U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation or any other Canadian or U.S. government agency or instrumentality. The Notes are not subject to conversion into our common shares under subsection 39.2(2.3) of the Canada Deposit Insurance Corporation Act.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of the Notes or determined that this pricing supplement is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
Issuer:
Royal Bank of Canada
Stock Exchange Listing:
None
Trade Date:
September 23, 2021
Principal Amount:
$1,000 per Note
Issue Date:
September 28, 2021
Maturity Date:
March 28, 2023
Observation Dates:
Quarterly, as set forth below.
Coupon Payment Dates:
Quarterly, as set forth below.
Valuation Date:
March 23, 2023
Contingent Coupon Rate:
8.70% per annum
Initial Price:
$161.90, which was the closing price of the Reference Asset on the Trade Date.
Final Price:
The closing price of the Reference Asset on the Valuation Date.
Trigger Price and
Coupon Barrier:
$121.43, which is 75% of the Initial Price (rounded to two decimal places).
Contingent Coupon:
If the closing price of the Reference Asset is greater than or equal to the Coupon Barrier on the applicable Observation Date, we will pay the Contingent Coupon applicable to that Observation Date. You may not receive any Contingent Coupons during the term of the Notes.
Payment at Maturity (if
held to maturity):
 
If the Notes are not previously called, we will pay you at maturity an amount based on the Final Price:
For each $1,000 in principal amount, $1,000 plus the Contingent Coupon at maturity, unless the Final Price is less than the Trigger Price.
If the Final Price is less than the Trigger Price, then the investor will receive at maturity, for each $1,000 in principal amount, a cash payment equal to: $1,000 + ($1,000 x Reference Asset Return)
Investors in the Notes will lose some or all of their principal amount if the Final Price is less than the Trigger Price.
Call Feature:
 
If the closing price of the Reference Asset is greater than or equal to its Initial Price starting on March 23, 2022 and on any Observation Date thereafter, the Notes will be automatically called for 100% of their principal amount, plus the Contingent Coupon applicable to the corresponding Observation Date.
CUSIP/ISIN:
78016E4D6 / US78016E4D64

 
Per Note
 
Total
Price to public
100.00%
 
$2,860,000
Underwriting discounts and commissions(1)
0%
 
$0
Proceeds to Royal Bank of Canada
100.00%
 
$2,860,000
(1) RBC Capital Markets, LLC (“RBCCM”), acting as our agent, will not receive a commission from us in connection with its sales of the Notes.  See “Supplemental Plan of Distribution (Conflicts of Interest)” below.
The initial estimated value of the Notes as of the Trade Date was $993.02 per $1,000 in principal amount, which is less than the price to public. The actual value of the Notes at any time will reflect many factors, cannot be predicted with accuracy, and may be less than this amount. We describe our determination of the initial estimated value in more detail below.


RBC Capital Markets, LLC



 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

SUMMARY
The information in this “Summary” section is qualified by the more detailed information set forth in this pricing supplement, the product prospectus supplement, the prospectus supplement, and the prospectus.
General:
This pricing supplement relates to an offering of Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes (the “Notes”) linked to the iShares® Russell 2000 Value ETF (the “Reference Asset”).
Issuer:
Royal Bank of Canada (“Royal Bank”)
Trade Date:
September 23, 2021
Issue Date:
September 28, 2021
Valuation Date:
March 23, 2023
Maturity Date:
March 28, 2023
Denominations:
Minimum denomination of $1,000, and integral multiples of $1,000 thereafter.
Contingent Coupon:
 
We will pay you a Contingent Coupon during the term of the Notes, periodically in arrears on each Coupon Payment Date, under the conditions described below:
         If the closing price of the Reference Asset is greater than or equal to the Coupon Barrier on the applicable Observation Date, we will pay the Contingent Coupon applicable to that Observation Date.
         If the closing price of the Reference Asset is less than the Coupon Barrier on the applicable Observation Date, we will not pay you the Contingent Coupon applicable to that Observation Date.
You may not receive a Contingent Coupon for one or more quarterly periods during the term of the Notes.
Contingent Coupon
Rate:
8.70% per annum (2.175% per quarter)
Observation Dates:
Quarterly, on December 23, 2021, March 23, 2022, June 23, 2022, September 23, 2022, December 23, 2022 and the Valuation Date.
Coupon Payment
Dates:
The Contingent Coupon, if payable, will be paid quarterly on December 29, 2021, March 28, 2022, June 28, 2022, September 28, 2022, December 29, 2022 and the Maturity Date.
Record Dates:
The record date for each Coupon Payment Date will be one business day prior to that scheduled Coupon Payment Date; provided, however, that any Contingent Coupon payable at maturity or upon a call will be payable to the person to whom the payment at maturity or upon the call, as the case may be, will be payable.
Call Feature:
If, starting on March 23, 2022 and on any Observation Date thereafter, the closing price of the Reference Asset is greater than or equal to its Initial Price, then the Notes will be automatically called.
Payment if Called:
 
If the Notes are automatically called, then, on the applicable Coupon Payment Date, for each $1,000 in principal amount, you will receive $1,000 plus the Contingent Coupon otherwise due on that Coupon Payment Date.
Initial Price:
The closing price of the Reference Asset on the Trade Date, as set forth on the cover page of this pricing supplement.
Final Price:
The closing price of the Reference Asset on the Valuation Date.

P-2
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

Trigger Price and
Coupon Barrier:
75% of the Initial Price, as set forth on the cover page of this pricing supplement.
 
Payment at Maturity (if
not previously called
and held to maturity):
 
If the Notes are not previously called, we will pay you at maturity an amount based on the Final Price:
         If the Final Price is greater than or equal to the Trigger Price, we will pay you a cash payment equal to the principal amount plus the Contingent Coupon otherwise due on the Maturity Date.
         If the Final Price is less than the Trigger Price, you will receive at maturity, for each $1,000 in principal amount, a cash payment equal to: $1,000 + ($1,000 x Reference Asset Return)
The amount of cash that you receive will be less than your principal amount, if anything, resulting in a loss that is proportionate to the decline of the Reference Asset from the Trade Date to the Valuation Date. Investors in the Notes will lose some or all of their principal amount if the Final Price is less than the Trigger Price.
Reference Asset
Return:
Final Price - Initial Price
Initial Price
Stock Settlement:
Not applicable. Payments on the Notes will be made solely in cash.
Calculation Agent:
RBC Capital Markets, LLC (“RBCCM”)
U.S. Tax Treatment:
 
By purchasing a Note, each holder agrees (in the absence of a change in law, an administrative determination or a judicial ruling to the contrary) to treat the Notes as a callable pre-paid cash-settled contingent income-bearing derivative contract linked to the Reference Asset for U.S. federal income tax purposes. However, the U.S. federal income tax consequences of your investment in the Notes are uncertain and the Internal Revenue Service could assert that the Notes should be taxed in a manner that is different from that described in the preceding sentence. Please see the section below, “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences” and the discussion (including the opinion of Ashurst LLP, our special U.S. tax counsel) in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 under “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences,” which apply to the Notes.
Secondary Market:
 
RBCCM (or one of its affiliates), though not obligated to do so, may maintain a secondary market in the Notes after the issue date. The amount that you may receive upon sale of your Notes prior to maturity may be less than the principal amount.
Listing:
The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange.
Settlement:
DTC global (including through its indirect participants Euroclear and Clearstream, Luxembourg as described under “Ownership and Book-Entry Issuance” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021).
Terms Incorporated in
the Master Note:
All of the terms appearing on the cover page and above the item captioned “Secondary Market” on pages P-2 and P-3 of this pricing supplement and the terms appearing under the caption “General Terms of the Notes” in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, as modified by this pricing supplement.

P-3
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

ADDITIONAL TERMS OF YOUR NOTES
You should read this pricing supplement together with the prospectus dated September 14, 2021, as supplemented by the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 and the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, relating to our Senior Global Medium Term Notes, Series I, of which these Notes are a part. Capitalized terms used but not defined in this pricing supplement will have the meanings given to them in the product prospectus supplement. In the event of any conflict, this pricing supplement will control. The Notes vary from the terms described in the product prospectus supplement in several important ways. You should read this pricing supplement carefully.
This pricing supplement, together with the documents listed below, contains the terms of the Notes and supersedes all prior or contemporaneous oral statements as well as any other written materials including preliminary or indicative pricing terms, correspondence, trade ideas, structures for implementation, sample structures, brochures or other educational materials of ours. You should carefully consider, among other things, the matters set forth in “Risk Factors” in the prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 and in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021, as the Notes involve risks not associated with conventional debt securities. We urge you to consult your investment, legal, tax, accounting and other advisors before you invest in the Notes. You may access these documents on the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) website at www.sec.gov as follows (or if that address has changed, by reviewing our filings for the relevant date on the SEC website):
Prospectus dated September 14, 2021:
https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1000275/000121465921009470/rbc911212424b3.htm
Prospectus Supplement dated September 14, 2021:
https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1000275/000121465921009472/rbcsupp911210424b3.htm
Product Prospectus Supplement dated September 14, 2021:
https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1000275/000114036121031212/brhc10028900_424b5.htm
Our Central Index Key, or CIK, on the SEC website is 1000275.  As used in this pricing supplement, “we,” “us,” or “our” refers to Royal Bank of Canada.

P-4
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

HYPOTHETICAL EXAMPLES
The table set out below is included for illustration purposes only. The table illustrates the Payment at Maturity of the Notes (including the final Contingent Coupon, if payable) for a hypothetical range of performance for the Reference Asset, assuming the following terms and that the Notes are not automatically called prior to maturity:
 
Hypothetical Initial Price:
$100.00*
 
Hypothetical Trigger Price and Coupon Barrier:
$75.00, which is 75% of the hypothetical Initial Price
 
Contingent Coupon Rate:
8.70% per annum (or 2.175% per quarter)
 
Contingent Coupon Amount:
$21.75 per quarter
 
Observation Dates:
Quarterly
 
Principal Amount:
$1,000 per Note
* The hypothetical Initial Price of $100 used in the examples below has been chosen for illustrative purposes only, and is not the actual Initial Price. The actual Initial Price is set forth on the cover page of this pricing supplement.
Hypothetical Final Prices are shown in the first column on the left. The second column shows the Payment at Maturity for a range of Final Prices. The third column shows the amount of cash to be paid on the Notes per $1,000 in principal amount. If the Notes are called prior to maturity, the hypothetical examples below will not be relevant, and you will receive on the applicable Coupon Payment Date, for each $1,000 principal amount, $1,000 plus the Contingent Coupon otherwise due on the Notes.

Hypothetical Final Price
Payment at Maturity as
Percentage of Principal Amount
Payment at Maturity (assuming
that the Notes were not
previously called)
$150.00
102.175%*
$1,021.75*
$140.00
102.175%*
$1,021.75*
$130.00
102.175%*
$1,021.75*
$120.00
102.175%*
$1,021.75*
$110.00
102.175%*
$1,021.75*
$100.00
102.175%*
$1,021.75*
$90.00
102.175%*
$1,021.75*
$80.00
102.175%*
$1,021.75*
$75.00
102.175%*
$1,021.75*
$74.99
74.99%
$749.90
$70.00
70.00%
$700.00
$60.00
60.00%
$600.00
$50.00
50.00%
$500.00
$40.00
40.00%
$400.00
$30.00
30.00%
$300.00
$20.00
20.00%
$200.00
$10.00
10.00%
$100.00
$0.00
0%
$0.00
*Including the final Contingent Coupon, if payable.

P-5
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

Hypothetical Examples of Amounts Payable at Maturity
The following hypothetical examples illustrate how the payments at maturity set forth in the table above are calculated, assuming the Notes have not been automatically called.
Example 1: The price of the Reference Asset increases by 25% from the Initial Price of $100.00 to a Final Price of $125.00. Because the Final Price is greater than the Trigger Price and its Coupon Barrier, the investor receives at maturity, in addition to the final Contingent Coupon otherwise due on the Notes, a cash payment of $1,000 per Note, despite the 25% appreciation in the price of the Reference Asset.
Example 2: The price of the Reference Asset decreases by 10% from the Initial Price of $100.00 to a Final Price of $90.00. Because the Final Price is greater than the Trigger Price and its Coupon Barrier, the investor receives at maturity, in addition to the final Contingent Coupon otherwise due on the Notes, a cash payment of $1,000 per Note, despite the 10% decline in the price of the Reference Asset.
Example 3: The price of the Reference Asset decreases by 60% from the Initial Price of $100.00 to a Final Price of $40.00. Because the Final Price is less than the Trigger Price and its Coupon Barrier, the final Contingent Coupon will not be payable on the Maturity Date, and we will pay only $400.00 for each $1,000 in the principal amount of the Notes, calculated as follows:
Principal Amount + (Principal Amount x Reference Asset Return)
= $1,000 + ($1,000 x -60.00%) = $1,000 - $600.00 = $400.00
* * *
The Payments at Maturity shown above are entirely hypothetical; they are based on theoretical prices of the Reference Asset that may not be achieved on the Valuation Date and on assumptions that may prove to be erroneous. The actual market value of your Notes on the Maturity Date or at any other time, including any time you may wish to sell your Notes, may bear little relation to the hypothetical Payments at Maturity shown above, and those amounts should not be viewed as an indication of the financial return on an investment in the Notes.

P-6
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

SELECTED RISK CONSIDERATIONS
An investment in the Notes involves significant risks. Investing in the Notes is not equivalent to investing directly in the Reference Asset. These risks are explained in more detail in the section “Risk Factors,” in the product prospectus supplement. In addition to the risks described in the prospectus supplement and the product prospectus supplement, you should consider the following:
Risks Relating to the Terms of the Notes

You May Lose All or a Portion of the Principal Amount at Maturity - Investors in the Notes could lose all or a substantial portion of their principal amount if there is a decline in the price of the Reference Asset between the Trade Date and the Valuation Date. If the Notes are not called and the Final Price is less than the Trigger Price, the amount of cash that you receive at maturity will represent a loss of your principal that is proportionate to the decline in the closing price of the Reference Asset from the Trade Date to the Valuation Date. Any Contingent Coupons received on the Notes prior to the Maturity Date may not be sufficient to compensate for any such loss.

The Notes Are Subject to an Automatic Call — If on any Observation Date, beginning in March 2022, the closing price of the Reference Asset is greater than or equal to its Initial Price, then the Notes will be automatically called. If the Notes are automatically called, then, on the applicable Coupon Payment Date, for each $1,000 in principal amount, you will receive $1,000 plus the Contingent Coupon otherwise due on the applicable Coupon Payment Date. You will not receive any Contingent Coupons after that payment. You may be unable to reinvest your proceeds from the automatic call in an investment with a return that is as high as the return on the Notes would have been if they had not been called.

You May Not Receive Any Contingent Coupons — We will not necessarily make any coupon payments on the Notes. If the closing price of the Reference Asset on an Observation Date is less than the Coupon Barrier, we will not pay you the Contingent Coupon applicable to that Observation Date. If the closing price of the Reference Asset is less than the Coupon Barrier on each of the Observation Dates and on the Valuation Date, we will not pay you any Contingent Coupons during the term of, and you will not receive a positive return on, your Notes. Generally, this non-payment of the Contingent Coupon coincides with a period of greater risk of principal loss on your Notes. Accordingly, if we do not pay the Contingent Coupon on the Maturity Date, you will also incur a loss of principal, because the Final Price will be less than the Trigger Price.

The Call Feature and the Contingent Coupon Feature Limit Your Potential Return — The return potential of the Notes is limited to the pre-specified Contingent Coupon Rate, regardless of the appreciation of the Reference Asset. In addition, the total return on the Notes will vary based on the number of Observation Dates on which the Contingent Coupon becomes payable prior to maturity or an automatic call. Further, if the Notes are called due to the Call Feature, you will not receive any Contingent Coupons or any other payment in respect of any Observation Dates after the applicable Coupon Payment Date. Since the Notes could be called as early as the second Coupon Payment Date, the total return on the Notes could be minimal. If the Notes are not called, you may be subject to the full downside performance of the Reference Asset even though your potential return is limited to the Contingent Coupon Rate. As a result, the return on an investment in the Notes could be less than the return on a direct investment in the Reference Asset.

Your Return on the Notes May Be Lower than the Return on a Conventional Debt Security of Comparable Maturity — The return that you will receive on the Notes, which could be negative, may be less than the return you could earn on other investments. Even if your return is positive, your return may be less than the return you would earn if you purchased one of our conventional senior interest bearing debt securities.
 
Payments on the Notes Are Subject to Our Credit Risk, and Changes in Our Credit Ratings Are Expected to Affect the Market Value of the Notes — The Notes are our senior unsecured debt securities. As a result, your receipt of any Contingent Coupons, if payable, and the amount due on any relevant payment date is dependent upon our ability to repay our obligations on the applicable payment dates. This will be the case even if the price of the Reference Asset increases after the Trade Date. No assurance can be given as to what our financial condition will be at any time during the term of the Notes.

P-7
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 


Owning the Notes Is Not the Same as Owning the Reference Asset — The return on your Notes is unlikely to reflect the return you would realize if you actually owned the Reference Asset. For instance, you will not receive or be entitled to receive any dividend payments or other distributions on the Reference Asset during the term of your Notes. As an owner of the Notes, you will not have voting rights or any other rights that holders of the Reference Asset may have. Furthermore, the Reference Asset may appreciate substantially during the term of the Notes, while your potential return will be limited to the applicable Contingent Coupon payments.

The Payments on the Notes Are Subject to Postponement Due to Market Disruption Events and Adjustments — The payment at maturity, each Observation Date and the Valuation Date are subject to adjustment as described in the product prospectus supplement. For a description of what constitutes a market disruption event as well as the consequences of that market disruption event, see “General Terms of the Notes—Market Disruption Events” in the product prospectus supplement.
Risks Relating to the Secondary Market for the Notes

There May Not Be an Active Trading Market for the Notes-Sales in the Secondary Market May Result in Significant Losses — There may be little or no secondary market for the Notes. The Notes will not be listed on any securities exchange. RBCCM and our other affiliates may make a market for the Notes; however, they are not required to do so. RBCCM or any other affiliate of ours may stop any market-making activities at any time. Even if a secondary market for the Notes develops, it may not provide significant liquidity or trade at prices advantageous to you. We expect that transaction costs in any secondary market would be high. As a result, the difference between bid and asked prices for your Notes in any secondary market could be substantial.
Risks Relating to the Initial Estimated Value of the Notes

The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes Is Less than the Price to the Public — The initial estimated value that is set forth on the cover page of this pricing supplement does not represent a minimum price at which we, RBCCM or any of our affiliates would be willing to purchase the Notes in any secondary market (if any exists) at any time. If you attempt to sell the Notes prior to maturity, their market value may be lower than the price you paid for them and the initial estimated value. This is due to, among other things, changes in the price of the Reference Asset, the borrowing rate we pay to issue securities of this kind, and the inclusion in the price to the public of the estimated costs relating to our hedging of the Notes. These factors, together with various credit, market and economic factors over the term of the Notes, are expected to reduce the price at which you may be able to sell the Notes in any secondary market and will affect the value of the Notes in complex and unpredictable ways. Assuming no change in market conditions or any other relevant factors, the price, if any, at which you may be able to sell your Notes prior to maturity may be less than your original purchase price, as any such sale price would not be expected to include the hedging costs relating to the Notes. In addition to bid-ask spreads, the value of the Notes determined by RBCCM for any secondary market price is expected to be based on the secondary rate rather than the internal funding rate used to price the Notes and determine the initial estimated value. As a result, the secondary price will be less than if the internal funding rate was used. The Notes are not designed to be short-term trading instruments. Accordingly, you should be able and willing to hold your Notes to maturity.

The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes that Is Set Forth on the Cover Page of this Pricing Supplement Is an Estimate Only, Calculated as of the Time the Terms of the Notes Were Set — The initial estimated value of the Notes is based on the value of our obligation to make the payments on the Notes, together with the mid-market value of the derivative embedded in the terms of the Notes. See “Structuring the Notes” below. Our estimate is based on a variety of assumptions, including our credit spreads, expectations as to dividends, interest rates and volatility, and the expected term of the Notes. These assumptions are based on certain forecasts about future events, which may prove to be incorrect. Other entities may value the Notes or similar securities at a price that is significantly different than we do.
The value of the Notes at any time after the Trade Date will vary based on many factors, including changes in market conditions, and cannot be predicted with accuracy. As a result, the actual value you would receive if you sold the Notes in any secondary market, if any, should be expected to differ materially from the initial estimated value of your Notes.

P-8
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

Risks Relating to the Reference Asset

An Investment in Notes Linked to IWN Is Subject to Risks Associated with an Investment in Stocks with a Small Market Capitalization The IWN is linked to stocks issued by companies with relatively small market capitalizations. These companies often have greater stock price volatility, lower trading volume and less liquidity than large-capitalization companies. As a result, the share price of the IWN may be more volatile than that of a market measure that does not track solely small-capitalization stocks. Stock prices of small-capitalization companies are also often more vulnerable than those of large-capitalization companies to adverse business and economic developments, and the stocks of small-capitalization companies may be thinly traded, and be less attractive to many investors if they do not pay dividends. In addition, small capitalization companies are often less well-established and less stable financially than large-capitalization companies and may depend on a small number of key personnel, making them more vulnerable to loss of those individuals. Small capitalization companies tend to have lower revenues, less diverse product lines, smaller shares of their target markets, fewer financial resources and fewer competitive strengths than large-capitalization companies. These companies may also be more susceptible to adverse developments related to their products or services.

The Investment Strategy Represented by the Underlying Index May Not Be Successful – The "Underlying Index" of the IWN is the Russell 2000® Value Index.  The Underlying Index measures the capitalization-weighted performance of the stocks included in the Russell 2000® Index that are determined by the sponsor of the Underlying Index to be value oriented, with lower price-to-book ratios and lower forecasted and historical growth.  The basic principle of a value investment strategy is to invest in stocks that are determined to be relatively cheap or "undervalued" under the assumption that the value of such stocks will increase over time as the market recognizes and reflects those stocks' "fair" market value. However, stocks that are considered value stocks may fail to appreciate for extended periods of time, and may never realize their full potential value. In addition, stocks that are considered to be value oriented may have lower growth potential than other securities. Even if a value strategy with respect to the stocks included in the Underlying Index would generally be successful, the manner in which the Underlying Index implements its strategy may prove to be unsuccessful. As described below, the methodology of the Underlying Index has set parameters to determine whether a stock should be considered a "value" stock. The Underlying Index's parameters may not effectively implement its value strategy, and there can be no assurance that it will select stocks that are value oriented, or that the Underlying Index's methodology will not underperform any alternative implementation of such a strategy. Accordingly, the investment strategy represented by the Underlying Index may not be successful, and your investment in the Notes may result in a loss. An investment in the Notes may also provide a return that is less than an investment linked to the Underlying Index as a whole.

The Reference Asset and its Underlying Index Are Different — The performance of the Reference Asset may not exactly replicate the performance of the Underlying Index, because the Reference Asset will reflect transaction costs and fees that are not included in the calculation of the Underlying Index. It is also possible that the performance of the Reference Asset may not fully replicate or may in certain circumstances diverge significantly from the performance of the Underlying Index due to the temporary unavailability of certain securities in the secondary market, the performance of any derivative instruments contained in such Reference Asset or due to other circumstances. The Reference Asset may use futures contracts, options, swap agreements, currency forwards and repurchase agreements in seeking performance that corresponds to the Underlying Index and in managing cash flows.

During periods of market volatility, securities held by the Reference Asset may be unavailable in the secondary market, market participants may be unable to calculate accurately the net asset value per share of the Reference Asset and the liquidity of the Reference Asset may be adversely affected. This kind of market volatility may also disrupt the ability of market participants to create and redeem shares of the Reference Asset. Further, market volatility may adversely affect, sometimes materially, the prices at which market participants are willing to buy and sell shares of the Reference Asset. As a result, under these circumstances, the market value of shares of such Reference Asset may vary substantially from the net asset value per share of such Reference Asset. For all of the foregoing reasons, the performance of the Reference Asset may not correlate with the performance of the

P-9
RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

Underlying Index as well as the net asset value per share of such Reference Asset, which could materially and adversely affect the value of the Notes in the secondary market and/or reduce any payment under the Notes.

An Investment in the Notes Is Subject to Management Risk — The Reference Asset is not managed according to traditional methods of ‘‘active’’ investment management, which involve the buying and selling of securities based on economic, financial and market analysis and investment judgment. Instead, the Reference Asset, utilizing a ‘‘passive’’ or indexing investment approach, attempts to approximate the investment performance of the Underlying Index by investing in a portfolio of securities that generally replicate the Underlying Index. Therefore, unless a specific security is removed from the Underlying Index, the Reference Asset generally would not sell a security because the security’s issuer was in financial trouble. In addition, the Reference Asset is subject to the risk that the investment strategy of its investment advisor may not produce the intended results.

There Is No Affiliation Between the Investment Advisor or the Index Sponsor and RBCCM, and RBCCM Is Not Responsible for any Disclosure by the Investment Advisor or the Index Sponsor — We are not affiliated with the investment adviser of the Reference Asset or the index sponsor of the Underlying Index. However, we and our affiliates may currently, or from time to time in the future, engage in business with these entities. Nevertheless, neither we nor our affiliates assume any responsibilities for the accuracy or the completeness of any information that any other entity prepares. You, as an investor in the Notes, should make your own investigation into the Reference Asset and the companies in which it invests. None of these companies are involved in this offering, and have no obligation of any sort with respect to your Notes. These companies have no obligation to take your interests into consideration for any reason, including when taking any corporate actions that might affect the value of your Notes.

The Policies of the Reference Asset’s Investment Adviser Could Affect the Amount Payable on the Notes and Their Market Value — The policies of the Reference Asset’s investment adviser concerning the management of the Reference Asset, additions, deletions or substitutions of the securities held by the Reference Asset could affect the market price of shares of the Reference Asset and, therefore, the amount payable on the Notes and the market value of the Notes. The amount payable on the Notes and their market value could also be affected if the Reference Asset’s investment adviser changes these policies, for example, by changing the manner in which it manages the Reference Asset, or if the Reference Asset’s investment adviser discontinues or suspends maintenance of the Reference Asset, in which case it may become difficult to determine the market value of the Notes. The Reference Asset’s investment adviser have no connection to the offering of the Notes and have no obligations to you as an investor in the Notes in making its decisions regarding the Reference Asset.

Changes that Affect the Underlying Index of the Reference Asset Will Affect the Market Value of the Notes and the Payments on the Notes — The policies of the sponsor of the Underlying Index concerning the calculation of that index, additions, deletions or substitutions of the components of that index and the manner in which changes affecting those components, such as stock dividends, reorganizations or mergers, may be reflected in that index and, therefore, could affect the share price of the Reference Asset, the amount payable on the Notes, if applicable, and the market value of the Notes prior to maturity. The amount payable on the Notes and their market value could also be affected if the sponsor changes these policies, for example, by changing the manner in which it calculates the index, or if the calculation or publication of the index is discontinued or suspended.
Risks Relating to Conflicts of Interest and Our Trading Activities
 
You Must Rely on Your Own Evaluation of the Merits of an Investment Linked to the Reference Asset — In the ordinary course of their business, our affiliates may have expressed views on expected movement in the Reference Asset or the equity securities that they represent, and may do so in the future. These views or reports may be communicated to our clients and clients of our affiliates. However, these views are subject to change from time to time. Moreover, other professionals who transact business in markets relating to the Reference Asset may at any time have significantly different views from those of our affiliates. For these reasons, you are encouraged to derive information concerning the Reference Asset from multiple sources, and you should not rely solely on views expressed by our affiliates.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
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Royal Bank of Canada
 

 
Our Business Activities May Create Conflicts of Interest — We and our affiliates expect to engage in trading activities related to the Reference Asset or the securities held by the Reference Asset that are not for the account of holders of the Notes or on their behalf. These trading activities may present a conflict between the holders’ interests in the Notes and the interests we and our affiliates will have in their proprietary accounts, in facilitating transactions, including options and other derivatives transactions, for their customers and in accounts under their management. These trading activities, if they influence the prices of the Reference Asset, could be adverse to the interests of the holders of the Notes. We and one or more of our affiliates may, at present or in the future, engage in business with the Reference Asset or the issuers of the securities held by the Reference Asset, including making loans to or providing advisory services. These services could include investment banking and merger and acquisition advisory services. These activities may present a conflict between our or one or more of our affiliates’ obligations and your interests as a holder of the Notes. Moreover, we and our affiliates may have published, and in the future expect to publish, research reports with respect to the Reference Asset. This research is modified from time to time without notice and may express opinions or provide recommendations that are inconsistent with purchasing or holding the Notes. Any of these activities by us or one or more of our affiliates may affect the price of the Reference Asset, and, therefore, the market value of the Notes.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

INFORMATION REGARDING THE REFERENCE ASSET
Information filed with the SEC relating to the IWN under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended, can be obtained through the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. In addition, information regarding the Reference Asset may be obtained from other sources including, but not limited to, press releases, newspaper articles and other publicly disseminated documents. We have not participated in the preparation of, or verified, such publicly available information. None of the forgoing documents or filings are incorporated by reference in, and should not be considered part of, this document.
The following information regarding the Reference Asset is derived from publicly available information.
We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of reports filed by the Reference Asset with the SEC, information published by it on its website or in any other format, information about it obtained from any other source or the information provided below.
The Notes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold or promoted by the investment adviser. The investment adviser makes no representations or warranties to the owners of the Notes or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in the Notes. The investment adviser has no obligation or liability in connection with the operation, marketing, trading or sale of the Notes.
We obtained the information regarding the historical performance of the Reference Asset set forth below from Bloomberg Financial Markets.
We have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of the information obtained from Bloomberg Financial Markets. The historical performance of the Reference Asset should not be taken as an indication of its future performance, and no assurance can be given as to the market price of the Reference Asset at any time during the term of the Notes. We cannot give you assurance that the performance of the Reference Asset will not result in the loss of all or part of your investment.
iShares Funds
iShares consists of numerous separate investment portfolios (the “iShares Funds”), including the IWN. The Reference Asset seeks investment results that correspond generally to the price and yield performance, before fees and expenses, of the Underlying Index. The Reference Asset typically earns income from dividends from securities that it holds. These amounts, net of expenses and taxes (if applicable), are passed along to its shareholders as “ordinary income.” In addition, the Reference Asset realizes capital gains or losses whenever it sells securities. Net long-term capital gains are distributed to its respective shareholders as “capital gain distributions.” However, because the Notes are linked only to the share price of the Reference Asset, you will not be entitled to receive income, dividend, or capital gain distributions from the Reference Asset or any equivalent payments.
“iShares®” and “BlackRock®” are registered trademarks of BlackRock®.  The Notes are not sponsored, endorsed, sold, or promoted by BlackRock®, or by any of the iShares® Funds. Neither BlackRock® nor the iShares® Funds make any representations or warranties to the owners of the Notes or any member of the public regarding the advisability of investing in the Notes. Neither BlackRock® nor the iShares® Funds shall have any obligation or liability in connection with the registration, operation, marketing, trading, or sale of the Notes or in connection with our use of information about the Reference Asset or any of the iShares® Funds.
The iShares® Russell 2000 Value ETF
The IWN seeks investment results that correspond generally to the price and yield performance, before fees and expenses, of the Russell 2000® Value Index. The shares of the Reference Asset trade on the NYSE Arca, Inc. under the symbol “IWN.”
The Russell 2000® Value Index measures the capitalization-weighted price performance of the stocks included in the Russell 2000® Index that are determined by FTSE Russell to be value oriented, with lower price-to-book ratios and lower forecasted and historical growth. The Russell 2000® Index tracks 2,000 U.S. small capitalization stocks listed on eligible U.S. exchanges (the “Russell 2000 Stocks”).
FTSE Russell’s Value and Growth Style Methodology
FTSE Russell uses a “non-linear probability” method to assign stocks to the Reference Asset and the Russell 2000® Growth Index (the “Growth Index”), an index that measures the capitalization‑weighted price performance of the Russell 2000 Stocks determined by FTSE Russell to be growth oriented, with higher price‑to‑book ratios and higher forecasted and historical growth.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

FTSE Russell uses three variables in the determination of value and growth. For value, book-to-price (B/P) ratio is used, while for growth, two variables—I/B/E/S forecast medium-term growth (2-year) and sales per share historical growth (5-year)—are used. The term “probability” is used to indicate the degree of certainty that a stock is value or growth based on its relative book-to-price (B/P) ratio, I/B/E/S forecast medium-term growth (2 year) and sales per share historical growth (5 year).
First, the Russell 2000 Stocks are ranked by their adjusted book-to-price ratio (B/P), their I/B/E/S forecast medium-term growth (2 year) and sales per share historical growth (5 year). These rankings are then converted to standardized units, where the value variable represents 50% of the score and the two growth variables represent the remaining 50%. Next, these units are combined to produce a composite value score (“CVS”).
The Russell 2000 Stocks are then ranked by their CVS, and a probability algorithm is applied to the CVS distribution to assign growth and value weights to each stock. In general, a stock with a lower CVS is considered growth, a stock with a higher CVS is considered value and a stock with a CVS in the middle range is considered to have both growth and value characteristics, and is weighted proportionately in the Growth Index and the Value Index. Stocks are always fully represented by the combination of their growth and value weights (e.g., a stock that is given a 20% weight in the Value Index will have an 80% weight in the Growth Index). Style index assignment for non-pricing vehicle share classes will be based on that of the pricing vehicle and assigned consistently across all additional share classes.
Stock A, in the figure below, is a security with 20% of its available shares assigned to the Value Index and the remaining 80% assigned to the Growth Index. The growth and value probabilities will always sum to 100%. Hence, the sum of a stock’s market capitalization in the Growth Index and the Value Index will always equal its market capitalization in the Russell 2000® Index.

In the figure above, the quartile breaks are calculated such that approximately 25% of the available market capitalization lies in each quartile. Stocks at the median are divided 50% in each of the Growth Index and the Value Index. Stocks below the first quartile are 100% in the Growth Index. Stocks above the third quartile are 100% in the Value Index. Stocks falling between the first and third quartile breaks are included in both the Growth Index and the Value Index to varying degrees, depending on how far they are above or below the median and how close they are to the first or third quartile breaks.
Roughly 70% of the available market capitalization is classified as all growth or all value. The remaining 30% have some portion of their market value in either the Value Index or the Growth Index, depending on their relative distance from the median value score. Note that there is a small position cutoff rule. If a stock’s weight is more than 95% in one style index, its weight is increased to 100% in that index.
In an effort to mitigate unnecessary turnover, FTSE Russell implements a banding methodology at the CVS level of the growth and value style algorithm. If a company’s CVS change from the previous year is greater than or equal to +/- 0.10 and if the company remains in the Russell 2000® Index, then the CVS remains unchanged during the next reconstitution process. Keeping the CVS static for these companies does not mean the probability (growth/value) will remain unchanged in all cases due to the relation of a CVS score to the overall index. However, this banding methodology is intended to reduce turnover caused by smaller, less meaningful movements while continuing to allow the larger, more meaningful changes to occur, signaling a true change in a company’s relation to the market.
In calculating growth and value weights, stocks with missing or negative values for B/P, or missing values for I/B/E/S growth (negative I/B/E/S growth is valid), or missing sales per share historical growth (6 years of quarterly numbers are required), are allocated by using the mean value score of the Russell 2000® Index, the Russell Global Sectors (or, beginning in September 2020, the Industry Classification Benchmark (“ICB”)) industry, subsector or sector group of the Russell 2000® Index into which the company falls. Each missing (or negative B/P) variable is substituted with the industry, subsector or sector group

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Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

independently. An industry must have five members or the substitution reverts to the subsector, and so forth to the sector. In addition, a weighted value score is calculated for securities with low analyst coverage for I/B/E/S medium-term growth. For securities with coverage by a single analyst, 2/3 of the industry, subsector, or sector group value score is weighted with 1/3 the security’s independent value score. For those securities with coverage by two analysts, 2/3 of the independent security’s value score is used and only 1/3 of the industry, subsector, or sector group is weighted. For those securities with at least three analysts contributing to the I/B/E/S medium-term growth, 100% of the independent security’s value score is used.
The Russell 2000® Index
The Russell 2000® Index (Bloomberg L.P. index symbol “RTY”) was developed by Russell Investments (“Russell”) before FTSE International Limited (“FTSE”) and Russell combined in 2015 to create FTSE Russell, which is wholly owned by London Stock Exchange Group. Russell began dissemination of the RTY on January 1, 1984. FTSE Russell calculates and publishes the RTY. The RTY was set to 135 as of the close of business on December 31, 1986. The RTY is designed to track the performance of the small capitalization segment of the U.S. equity market. As a subset of the Russell 3000® Index, the RTY consists of the smallest 2,000 companies included in the Russell 3000® Index. The Russell 3000® Index measures the performance of the largest 3,000 U.S. companies, representing approximately 98% of the investable U.S. equity market. The RTY is determined, comprised, and calculated by FTSE Russell without regard to the Notes.
Selection of Stocks Comprising the RTY
All companies eligible for inclusion in the RTY must be classified as a U.S. company under the index sponsor’s country-assignment methodology. If a company is incorporated, has a stated headquarters location, and trades in the same country (American Depositary Receipts and American Depositary Shares are not eligible), then the company is assigned to its country of incorporation. If any of the three factors are not the same, the index sponsor defines three Home Country Indicators (“HCIs”): country of incorporation, country of headquarters, and country of the most liquid exchange (as defined by a two-year average daily dollar trading volume) (“ADDTV”) from all exchanges within a country. Using the HCIs, the index sponsor compares the primary location of the company’s assets with the three HCIs. If the primary location of its assets matches any of the HCIs, then the company is assigned to the primary location of its assets. If there is insufficient information to determine the country in which the company’s assets are primarily located, the index sponsor will use the primary country from which the company’s revenues are primarily derived for the comparison with the three HCIs in a similar manner. The index sponsor uses the average of two years of assets or revenues data to reduce potential turnover. If conclusive country details cannot be derived from assets or revenues data, the index sponsor will assign the company to the country of its headquarters, which is defined as the address of the company’s principal executive offices, unless that country is a Benefit Driven Incorporation “BDI” country, in which case the company will be assigned to the country of its most liquid stock exchange. BDI countries include: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bonaire, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Channel Islands, Cook Islands, Curacao, Faroe Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey, Liberia, Marshall Islands, Panama, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten, and Turks and Caicos Islands. For any companies incorporated or headquartered in a U.S. territory, including countries such as Puerto Rico, Guam, and U.S. Virgin Islands, a U.S. HCI is assigned. “N-shares” of companies controlled by individuals or entities in Mainland China are not eligible for inclusion.
All securities eligible for inclusion in the RTY must trade on a major U.S. exchange. Stocks must have a closing price at or above $1.00 on their primary exchange on the last trading day in May to be eligible for inclusion during annual reconstitution. However, in order to reduce unnecessary turnover, if an existing member’s closing price is less than $1.00 on the last day of May, it will be considered eligible if the average of the daily closing prices (from its primary exchange) during the month of May is equal to or greater than $1.00. Initial public offerings are added each quarter and must have a closing price at or above $1.00 on the last day of their eligibility period in order to qualify for index inclusion. If an existing stock does not trade on the “rank day” (typically the last trading day in May, but a confirmed timetable is announced each spring), but does have a closing price at or above $1.00 on another eligible U.S. exchange, that stock will be eligible for inclusion.
An important criterion used to determine the list of securities eligible for the RTY is total market capitalization, which is defined as the market price as of the rank day in May for those securities being considered at annual reconstitution times the total number of shares outstanding. Where applicable, common stock, non-restricted exchangeable shares and partnership units/membership interests are used to determine market capitalization. Any other form of shares such as preferred stock, convertible preferred stock, redeemable shares, participating preferred stock, warrants, rights, installment receipts or trust receipts, are excluded from the calculation. If multiple share classes of common stock exist, they are combined to determine total shares outstanding. In cases where the common stock share classes act independently of each other (e.g., tracking stocks), each class is considered for inclusion separately. If multiple share classes exist, the pricing vehicle will be designated as the share class with the highest two-year trading volume as of the rank day in May.

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Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

Companies with a total market capitalization of less than $30 million are not eligible for the RTY. Similarly, companies with only 5% or less of their shares available in the marketplace are not eligible for the RTY. Royalty trusts, limited liability companies, closed-end investment companies (companies that are required to report Acquired Fund Fees and Expenses, as defined by the SEC, including business development companies), blank check companies, special purpose acquisition companies, and limited partnerships are also ineligible for inclusion. Exchange traded funds and mutual funds are also excluded. Bulletin board, pink-sheets and over-the-counter (“OTC”) traded securities are not eligible for inclusion.
Annual reconstitution is a process by which the RTY is completely rebuilt. Based on closing levels of the company’s common stock on its primary exchange on the rank day of May of each year, FTSE Russell reconstitutes the composition of the RTY using the then existing market capitalizations of eligible companies. Reconstitution of the RTY occurs on the last Friday in June or, when the last Friday in June is the 29th or 30th, reconstitution occurs on the prior Friday. In addition, the index sponsor adds initial public offerings to the RTY on a quarterly basis based on total market capitalization ranking within the market-adjusted capitalization breaks established during the most recent reconstitution.
After membership is determined, a security’s shares are adjusted to include only those shares available to the public. This is often referred to as “free float.” The purpose of the adjustment is to exclude from market calculations the capitalization that is not available for purchase and is not part of the investable opportunity set.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

Historical Information
The graph below illustrates the performance of the Reference Asset from January 1, 2011 to September 23, 2021. The closing price of the Reference Asset on September 23, 2021 was $161.90. The red line represents the Coupon Barrier and Trigger Price of $121.43, which is 75% of the closing price of the Reference Asset on September 23, 2021 (rounded to two decimal places).

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

SUPPLEMENTAL DISCUSSION OF
U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSEQUENCES
The following disclosure supplements, and to the extent inconsistent supersedes, the discussion in the product prospectus supplement dated September 14, 2021 under “Supplemental Discussion of U.S. Federal Income Tax Consequences.”
Under Section 871(m) of the Code, a “dividend equivalent” payment is treated as a dividend from sources within the United States. Such payments generally would be subject to a 30% U.S. withholding tax if paid to a non-U.S. holder.  Under U.S. Treasury Department regulations, payments (including deemed payments) with respect to equity-linked instruments (“ELIs”) that are “specified ELIs” may be treated as dividend equivalents if such specified ELIs reference an interest in an “underlying security,” which is generally any interest in an entity taxable as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes if a payment with respect to such interest could give rise to a U.S. source dividend. However, the IRS has issued guidance that states that the U.S. Treasury Department and the IRS intend to amend the effective dates of the U.S. Treasury Department regulations to provide that withholding on dividend equivalent payments will not apply to specified ELIs that are not delta-one instruments and that are issued before January 1, 2023. Based on our determination that the Notes are not delta-one instruments, non-U.S. holders should not be subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments, if any, under the Notes. However, it is possible that the Notes could be treated as deemed reissued for U.S. federal income tax purposes upon the occurrence of certain events affecting the Reference Asset or the Notes (for example, upon a rebalancing of the Reference Asset), and following such occurrence the Notes could be treated as subject to withholding on dividend equivalent payments. Non-U.S. holders that enter, or have entered, into other transactions in respect of the Reference Asset or the Notes should consult their tax advisors as to the application of the dividend equivalent withholding tax in the context of the Notes and their other transactions. If any payments are treated as dividend equivalents subject to withholding, we (or the applicable withholding agent) would be entitled to withhold taxes without being required to pay any additional amounts with respect to amounts so withheld.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

SUPPLEMENTAL PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION (CONFLICTS OF INTEREST)
Delivery of the Notes will be made against payment for the Notes on September 28, 2021, which is the third (3rd) business day following the Trade Date (this settlement cycle being referred to as “T+3”). See “Plan of Distribution” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021. For additional information as to the relationship between us and RBCCM, please see the section “Plan of Distribution—Conflicts of Interest” in the prospectus dated September 14, 2021.
We will deliver the Notes on a date that is greater than two business days following the Trade Date. Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. Accordingly, purchasers who wish to trade the Notes more than two business days prior to the original issue date will be required to specify alternative arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.
The value of the Notes shown on your account statement may be based on RBCCM’s estimate of the value of the Notes if RBCCM or another of our affiliates were to make a market in the Notes (which it is not obligated to do). That estimate will be based upon the price that RBCCM may pay for the Notes in light of then prevailing market conditions, our creditworthiness and transaction costs. For a period of approximately 3 months after the issue date of the Notes, the value of the Notes that may be shown on your account statement may be higher than RBCCM’s estimated value of the Notes at that time.  This is because the estimated value of the Notes will not include our hedging costs and profits; however, the value of the Notes shown on your account statement during that period may initially be a higher amount, reflecting the addition of our estimated costs and profits from hedging the Notes.  This excess is expected to decrease over time until the end of this period. After this period, if RBCCM repurchases your Notes, it expects to do so at prices that reflect their estimated value.
We may use this pricing supplement in the initial sale of the Notes. In addition, RBCCM or another of our affiliates may use this pricing supplement in a market-making transaction in the Notes after their initial sale. Unless we or our agent informs the purchaser otherwise in the confirmation of sale, this pricing supplement is being used in a market-making transaction.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

STRUCTURING THE NOTES
The Notes are our debt securities, the return on which is linked to the performance of the Reference Asset. As is the case for all of our debt securities, including our structured notes, the economic terms of the Notes reflect our actual or perceived creditworthiness at the time of pricing.  In addition, because structured notes result in increased operational, funding and liability management costs to us, we typically borrow the funds under these Notes at a rate that is more favorable to us than the rate that we might pay for a conventional fixed or floating rate debt security of comparable maturity.  Using this relatively lower implied borrowing rate rather than the secondary market rate, is a factor that reduced the initial estimated value of the Notes at the time their terms were set. Unlike the estimated value that is set forth on the cover page of this pricing supplement, any value of the Notes determined for purposes of a secondary market transaction may be based on a different funding rate, which may result in a lower value for the Notes than if our initial internal funding rate were used.
In order to satisfy our payment obligations under the Notes, we may choose to enter into certain hedging arrangements (which may include call options, put options or other derivatives) on the issue date with RBCCM or one of our other subsidiaries. The terms of these hedging arrangements take into account a number of factors, including our creditworthiness, interest rate movements, the volatility of the Reference Asset, and the tenor of the Notes. The economic terms of the Notes and their initial estimated value depend in part on the terms of these hedging arrangements.
The lower implied borrowing rate is a factor that reduced the economic terms of the Notes to you. The initial offering price of the Notes also reflects our estimated hedging costs. These factors resulted in the initial estimated value for the Notes on the Trade Date being less than their public offering price. See “Selected Risk Considerations—The Initial Estimated Value of the Notes Is Less than the Price to the Public” above.

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RBC Capital Markets, LLC


 

 
Auto-Callable Contingent Coupon Barrier Notes
Royal Bank of Canada
 

VALIDITY OF THE NOTES
In the opinion of Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP, the issue and sale of the Notes has been duly authorized by all  necessary corporate action of the Bank in conformity with the Indenture, and when the Notes have been duly executed,  authenticated and issued in accordance with the Indenture and delivered against payment therefor, the Notes will be  validly issued and, to the extent validity of the Notes is a matter governed by the laws of the Province of Ontario or  Québec, or the laws of Canada applicable therein, will be valid obligations of the Bank, subject to equitable remedies  which may only be granted at the discretion of a court of competent authority, subject to applicable bankruptcy, to rights to  indemnity and contribution under the Notes or the Indenture which may be limited by applicable law; to insolvency and  other laws of general application affecting creditors’ rights, to limitations under applicable limitations statutes, and to  limitations as to the currency in which judgments in Canada may be rendered, as prescribed by the Currency Act  (Canada). This opinion is given as of the date hereof and is limited to the laws of the Provinces of Ontario and Québec  and the federal laws of Canada applicable thereto. In addition, this opinion is subject to customary assumptions about the  Trustee’s authorization, execution and delivery of the Indenture and the genuineness of signatures and certain factual  matters, all as stated in the letter of such counsel dated September 14, 2021, which has been filed as Exhibit 5.3 to Royal  Bank’s Form 6-K filed with the SEC dated September 14, 2021.
In the opinion of Ashurst LLP, when the Notes have been duly completed in accordance with the Indenture and issued and  sold as contemplated by the prospectus supplement and the prospectus, the Notes will be valid, binding and enforceable  obligations of the Bank, entitled to the benefits of the Indenture, subject to applicable bankruptcy, insolvency, fraudulent  transfer, reorganization, moratorium and similar laws of general applicability relating to or affecting creditors' rights and  subject to general principles of equity, public policy considerations and the discretion of the court before which any suit or  proceeding may be brought. This opinion is given as of the date hereof and is limited to the laws of the State of New York.  This opinion is subject to customary assumptions about the Trustee’s authorization, execution and delivery of the Indenture and the genuineness of signatures and to such counsel’s reliance on the Bank and other sources as to certain  factual matters, all as stated in the legal opinion dated September 14, 2021, which has been filed as Exhibit 5.4 to the  Bank’s Form 6-K dated September 14, 2021.


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RBC Capital Markets, LLC