Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
Registration No. 333-257229
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT NO. 2
(to Prospectus dated June 30, 2021)
picture1a.jpg
18,012,845 Shares

Nikola Corporation

Common Stock

This prospectus supplement supplements the prospectus dated June 30, 2021 (the “Prospectus”), which forms a part of our registration statement on Form S-1 (No. 333-257229). This prospectus supplement is being filed to update and supplement the information in the Prospectus with the information contained in our quarterly report on Form 10-Q, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 3, 2021 (the “Quarterly Report”). Accordingly, we have attached the Quarterly Report to this prospectus supplement.

The Prospectus and this prospectus supplement relates to the offer and sale of up to 18,012,845 shares of our common stock, $0.0001 par value per share (“Common Stock”), by Tumim Stone Capital, LLC.

Our Common Stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “NKLA”. On August 2, 2021, the closing price of our Common Stock was $11.18.

This prospectus supplement updates and supplements the information in the Prospectus and is not complete without, and may not be delivered or utilized except in combination with, the Prospectus, including any amendments or supplements thereto. This prospectus supplement should be read in conjunction with the Prospectus and if there is any inconsistency between the information in the Prospectus and this prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement.


See the section entitled “Risk Factors” beginning on page 11 of the Prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference in the Prospectus to read about factors you should consider before buying our securities.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus supplement or the Prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus supplement is August 3, 2021.



Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
Registration No. 333-257229
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT NO. 2
(to Prospectus dated June 30, 2021)
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2021

OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to

Commission File Number: 001-38495
Nikola Corporation
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

Delaware82-4151153
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
4141 E Broadway Road
Phoenix, AZ
85040
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
(480) 666-1038
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
N/A
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)


Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.0001 par value per shareNKLAThe Nasdaq Stock Market LLC

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes ☒ No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes ☒ No




Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
Registration No. 333-257229
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT NO. 2
(to Prospectus dated June 30, 2021)
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company”, and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☒

As of July 29, 2021, there were 398,253,825 shares of the registrant’s common stock outstanding.



Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
Registration No. 333-257229
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT NO. 2
(to Prospectus dated June 30, 2021)
NIKOLA CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Summary Risk Factors
PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1.Financial Statements
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
PART II - OTHER INFORMATION
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 6.


Summary Risk Factors

Our business is subject to numerous risks and uncertainties that could affect our ability to successfully implement our business strategy and affect our financial results. You should carefully consider all of the information in this report and, in particular, the following principal risks and all of the other specific factors described in Item 1A. of this report, “Risk Factors,” before deciding whether to invest in our company.

We are an early stage company with a history of losses, and expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.

We may be unable to adequately control the costs associated with our operations.

Our business model has yet to be tested and any failure to commercialize our strategic plans would have an adverse effect on our operating results and business, harm our reputation and could result in substantial liabilities that exceed our resources.

Our limited operating history makes evaluating our business and future prospects difficult and may increase the risk of your investment.

We will need to raise additional funds and these funds may not be available to us when we need them. If we cannot raise additional funds when we need them, our operations and prospects could be negatively affected.

1

Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
Registration No. 333-257229
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT NO. 2
(to Prospectus dated June 30, 2021)
If we fail to manage our future growth effectively, we may not be able to market and sell our vehicles successfully.

Our bundled lease model may present unique problems that may have an adverse effect on our operating results and business and harm our reputation.

We may face legal challenges in one or more states attempting to sell directly to customers which could materially adversely affect our costs.

We face risks and uncertainties related to litigation, regulatory actions and government investigations and inquiries.

Our success will depend on our ability to economically manufacture our trucks at scale and build our hydrogen fueling stations to meet our customers’ business needs, and our ability to develop and manufacture trucks of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and at scale is unproven.

We may experience significant delays in the design, manufacture, launch and financing of our trucks, including in the build out of our manufacturing plant, which could harm our business and prospects.

Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of raw materials, particularly lithium-ion battery cells, could harm our business.

2

Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
Registration No. 333-257229
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT NO. 2
(to Prospectus dated June 30, 2021)
PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
NIKOLA CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(In thousands, except share and per share data)

June 30,December 31,
20212020
(Unaudited)
Assets
Current assets
Cash and cash equivalents$632,694 $840,913 
Restricted cash and cash equivalents— 4,365 
Inventory2,267 — 
Prepaid in-kind services18,548 46,271 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets9,776 5,368 
Total current assets663,285 896,917 
Restricted cash and cash equivalents— 4,000 
Long-term deposits16,670 17,687 
Property, plant and equipment, net166,367 71,401 
Intangible assets, net50,000 50,050 
Investment in affiliates63,639 8,420 
Goodwill5,238 5,238 
Total assets$965,199 $1,053,713 
Liabilities and stockholders' equity
Current liabilities
Accounts payable58,064 29,364 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities26,725 18,809 
Term note, current— 4,100 
Total current liabilities84,789 52,273 
Finance lease liabilities13,491 13,956 
Warrant liability8,895 7,335 
Deferred tax liabilities, net10 
Total liabilities107,185 73,572 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 11)
Common stock with embedded put right13,237 — 
Stockholders' equity
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value, 150,000,000 shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020
— — 
Common stock, $0.0001 par value, 600,000,000 shares authorized, 397,077,561 and 391,041,347 shares issued and outstanding as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively
40 39 
Additional paid-in capital1,668,362 1,540,037 
Accumulated other comprehensive income239 
Accumulated deficit(823,629)(560,174)
Total stockholders' equity 844,777 980,141 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity$965,199 $1,053,713 
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
3

Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
Registration No. 333-257229
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT NO. 2
(to Prospectus dated June 30, 2021)
NIKOLA CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended
June 30,
Six Months Ended
June 30,
2021202020212020
Solar revenues$— $36 $— $94 
Cost of solar revenues— 30 — 73 
Gross profit— — 21 
Operating expenses:
Research and development67,726 42,525 122,889 66,602 
Selling, general, and administrative70,672 44,104 136,099 52,039 
Total operating expenses138,398 86,629 258,988 118,641 
Loss from operations(138,398)(86,623)(258,988)(118,620)
Other income (expense):
Interest income (expense), net(92)22 (101)84 
Loss on forward contract liability— — — (1,324)
Revaluation of warrant liability(2,511)(29,157)(1,560)(29,157)
Other income (expense), net(1,102)(23)(883)91 
Loss before income taxes and equity in net loss of affiliates(142,103)(115,781)(261,532)(148,926)
Income tax expense
Loss before equity in net loss of affiliates(142,105)(115,782)(261,535)(148,928)
Equity in net loss of affiliates(1,126)— (1,920)— 
Net loss(143,231)(115,782)(263,455)(148,928)
Premium paid on repurchase of redeemable convertible preferred stock— (13,407)— (13,407)
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(143,231)$(129,189)$(263,455)$(162,335)
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders:
Basic$(0.36)$(0.43)$(0.67)$(0.56)
Diluted$(0.36)$(0.43)$(0.67)$(0.56)
Weighted-average shares outstanding:
Basic394,577,711 303,785,616 393,390,377 287,822,558 
Diluted394,577,711 303,785,616 393,390,377 287,822,558 

See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
4

Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
Registration No. 333-257229
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT NO. 2
(to Prospectus dated June 30, 2021)
NIKOLA CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)

Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Net loss$(143,231)$(115,782)$(263,455)$(148,928)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Foreign currency translation adjustment, net of tax78 — (235)— 
Comprehensive loss$(143,153)$(115,782)$(263,690)$(148,928)
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
5

Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
Registration No. 333-257229
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT NO. 2
(to Prospectus dated June 30, 2021)
NIKOLA CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(In thousands, except share data)
(Unaudited)
Three Months Ended June 30, 2021
Common StockAdditional Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Total Stockholders' Equity
SharesAmount
Balance as of March 31, 2021393,745,157 $39 $1,592,716 $(680,398)$(74)$912,283 
Exercise of stock options1,033,250 1,212 — — 1,213 
Issuance of shares for RSU awards461,084 — — — — — 
Common stock issued for commitment shares155,703 — 2,625 — — 2,625 
Common stock issued for investment in affiliates, net of common stock with embedded put right1,682,367 — 19,139 — — 19,139 
Stock-based compensation— — 52,670 — — 52,670 
Net loss— — — (143,231)— (143,231)
Other comprehensive income    78 78 
Balance as of June 30, 2021397,077,561 $40 $1,668,362 $(823,629)$4 $844,777 

See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
6

Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
Registration No. 333-257229
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT NO. 2
(to Prospectus dated June 30, 2021)
Six Months Ended June 30, 2021
Common StockAdditional Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Total Stockholders' Equity
SharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 2020391,041,347 $39 $1,540,037 $(560,174)$239 $980,141 
Exercise of stock options2,929,917 3,625 — — 3,626 
Issuance of shares for RSU awards1,268,227 — — — — — 
Common stock issued for commitment shares155,703 — 2,625 — — 2,625 
Common stock issued for investment in affiliates, net of common stock with embedded put right1,682,367 — 19,139 — — 19,139 
Stock-based compensation— — 102,936 — — 102,936 
Net loss— — — (263,455)— (263,455)
Other comprehensive loss    (235)(235)
Balance as of June 30, 2021397,077,561 $40 $1,668,362 $(823,629)$4 $844,777 

Three Months Ended June 30, 2020
Redeemable Convertible Preferred StockCommon StockAdditional Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Total Stockholders'
(Deficit) Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance as of March 31, 202084,095,913 $414,664 60,167,980 $1 $1,315 $(222,454)$(221,138)
Retroactive application of recapitalization(84,095,913)(414,664)214,077,660 26 414,638 — 414,664 
Adjusted balance, beginning of period— — 274,245,640 27 415,953 (222,454)193,526 
Issuance of Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock, net of $5,571 issuance costs (1)
— — 5,215,933 45,572 — 45,573 
Issuance of Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock for in-kind contribution (1)
— — 7,390,436 71,998 — 71,999 
Business Combination and PIPE financing— — 72,272,942 594,515 — 594,522 
Exercise of stock options— — 1,785,688 — 1,882 — 1,882 
Stock-based compensation— — — — 38,227 — 38,227 
Net loss— — — — — (115,782)(115,782)
Balance as of June 30, 2020 $ 360,910,639 $36 $1,168,147 $(338,236)$829,947 

See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
7

Filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3)
Registration No. 333-257229
PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT NO. 2
(to Prospectus dated June 30, 2021)
(1) Issuance of Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock has been retroactively restated to give effect to the recapitalization transaction.

Six Months Ended June 30, 2020
Redeemable Convertible Preferred StockCommon StockAdditional Paid-in
Capital
Accumulated
Deficit
Total Stockholders'
(Deficit) Equity
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance as of December 31, 201982,297,742 $383,987 60,167,334 $1 $ $(188,480)$(188,479)
Retroactive application of recapitalization(82,297,742)(383,987)210,658,758 26 383,961 — $383,987 
Adjusted balance, beginning of period— — 270,826,092 27 383,961 (188,480)$195,508 
Issuance of Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock, net of $8,403 issuance costs (1)
— — 6,581,340 56,249 — $56,250 
Issuance of Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock for in-kind contribution (1)
— — 9,443,353 91,998 — $91,999 
Business Combination and PIPE financing— 72,272,942 594,515 — $594,522 
Exercise of stock options— — 1,786,912 — 1,884 — $1,884 
Stock-based compensation— — — — 39,540 — $39,540 
Cumulative effect of ASU 2016-02 adoption
— — — — — (828)$(828)
Net loss— — — — — (148,928)$(148,928)
Balance as of June 30, 2020 $ 360,910,639 $36 $1,168,147 $(338,236)$829,947 

(1) Issuance of Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock has been retroactively restated to give effect to the recapitalization transaction.
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
8


NIKOLA CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
(Unaudited)
Six Months Ended June 30,
20212020
Cash flows from operating activities
Net loss$(263,455)$(148,928)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization3,710 2,926 
Stock-based compensation102,936 39,540 
Deferred income taxes
Non-cash in-kind services27,723 17,241 
Loss on forward contract liability— 1,324 
Equity in net loss of affiliates1,920 — 
Revaluation of warrant liability1,560 29,157 
Issuance of common stock for commitment shares2,625 — 
Loss on sale of equipment1,008 — 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Inventory(2,267)— 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(4,024)(779)
Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other current liabilities9,535 9,064 
Long-term and customer deposits(7,247)4,892 
Net cash used in operating activities(125,974)(45,561)
Cash flows from investing activities
Purchases and deposits of property, plant and equipment(64,787)(6,303)
Investments in affiliates(25,000)— 
Proceeds from sale of equipment200 — 
Net cash used in investing activities(89,587)(6,303)
Cash flows from financing activities
Proceeds from issuance of Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock, net of issuance costs paid— 50,349 
Business Combination and PIPE financing, net of issuance costs paid— 616,736 
Proceeds from the exercise of stock options3,839 1,884 
Proceeds from landlord of finance lease— 889 
Payments on finance lease liabilities(518)(544)
Proceeds from note payable— 4,134 
Payment of note payable(4,100)(4,134)
Payments for issuance costs(244)— 
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities(1,023)669,314 
Net increase (decrease) in cash and cash equivalents, including restricted cash(216,584)617,450 
Cash and cash equivalents, including restricted cash, beginning of period849,278 89,832 
Cash and cash equivalents, including restricted cash, end of period$632,694 $707,282 
Supplementary cash flow disclosures:
Cash paid for interest$372 $490 
Cash interest received$384 $479 
Supplementary disclosures for noncash investing and financing activities:
Purchases of property, plant and equipment included in liabilities$33,389 $1,371 
Accrued deferred issuance costs$352 $— 
Non-cash prepaid in-kind services $— $74,758 
Accrued Business Combination and PIPE transaction costs$— $295 
Net liabilities assumed from VectoIQ$— $21,919 
Leased assets obtained in exchange for new finance lease liabilities$145 $— 
Common stock issued for commitment shares$2,625 $— 
Common stock issued for investments in affiliates, including common stock with embedded put right$32,376 $— 
See accompanying notes to the consolidated financial statements.
9

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

1.BASIS OF PRESENTATION
(a)Overview

Nikola Corporation (‘‘Nikola’’ or the ‘‘Company’’) is a designer and manufacturer of heavy-duty commercial battery-electric and hydrogen-electric vehicles and energy infrastructure solutions.
On June 3, 2020 (the "Closing Date"), VectoIQ Acquisition Corp. ("VectoIQ"), consummated the previously announced merger pursuant to the Business Combination Agreement, dated March 2, 2020 (the "Business Combination Agreement"), by and among the VectoIQ, VCTIQ Merger Sub Corp., a wholly-owned subsidiary of VectoIQ incorporated in the State of Delaware ("Merger Sub"), and Nikola Corporation, a Delaware corporation ("Legacy Nikola"). Pursuant to the terms of the Business Combination Agreement, a business combination between the Company and Legacy Nikola was effected through the merger of Merger Sub with and into Legacy Nikola, with Legacy Nikola surviving as the surviving company and as a wholly-owned subsidiary of VectoIQ (the "Business Combination").

On the Closing Date, and in connection with the closing of the Business Combination, VectoIQ changed its name to Nikola Corporation. Legacy Nikola was deemed the accounting acquirer in the Business Combination based on an analysis of the criteria outlined in Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") 805. This determination was primarily based on Legacy Nikola's stockholders prior to the Business Combination having a majority of the voting interests in the combined company, Legacy Nikola's operations comprising the ongoing operations of the combined company, Legacy Nikola's board of directors comprising a majority of the board of directors of the combined company, and Legacy Nikola's senior management comprising the senior management of the combined company. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Business Combination was treated as the equivalent of Legacy Nikola issuing stock for the net assets of VectoIQ, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of VectoIQ are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded.

While VectoIQ was the legal acquirer in the Business Combination, because Legacy Nikola was deemed the accounting acquirer, the historical financial statements of Legacy Nikola became the historical financial statements of the combined company, upon the consummation of the Business Combination. As a result, the financial statements included in this report reflect (i) the historical operating results of Legacy Nikola prior to the Business Combination; (ii) the combined results of the Company and Legacy Nikola following the closing of the Business Combination; (iii) the assets and liabilities of Legacy Nikola at their historical cost; and (iv) the Company’s equity structure for all periods presented.

In accordance with guidance applicable to these circumstances, the equity structure has been restated in all comparative periods up to the Closing Date, to reflect the number of shares of the Company's common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, issued to Legacy Nikola's stockholders in connection with the recapitalization transaction. As such, the shares and corresponding capital amounts and earnings per share related to Legacy Nikola redeemable convertible preferred stock and Legacy Nikola common stock prior to the Business Combination have been retroactively restated as shares reflecting the exchange ratio established in the Business Combination Agreement. Activity within the statement of stockholders' equity for the issuances and repurchases of Legacy Nikola's redeemable convertible preferred stock, were also retroactively converted to Legacy Nikola common stock.
(b)Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements

The accompanying unaudited consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (“GAAP”) and pursuant to the regulations of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The unaudited financial information reflects, in the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, considered necessary for a fair statement of the Company's financial position, results of operations and cash flows for the periods indicated. The results reported for the interim period presented are not necessarily indicative of results that may be expected for the full year. These consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2020 included in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Certain prior period balances were conformed to the restated consolidated financial statements, as previously disclosed in the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2020, due to the accounting for warrant liabilities.
9

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. Intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated.

Certain prior period balances have been reclassified to conform to the current period presentation in the consolidated financial statements and the accompanying notes.
All dollar amounts are in thousands, unless otherwise noted. Share and per share amounts are presented on a post-conversion basis for all periods presented, unless otherwise specified.

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect certain reported amounts and disclosures. Accordingly, actual results could differ from those estimates.
(c)Funding Risks and Going Concern
As an early stage growth company, the Company's ability to access capital is critical. Until the Company can generate sufficient revenue to cover its operating expenses, working capital and capital expenditures, the Company will need to raise additional capital.
Additional stock financing may not be available on favorable terms and could be dilutive to current stockholders. Debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants and dilutive financing instruments.
The Company’s ability to access capital when needed is not assured and, if capital is not available to the Company when, and in the amounts needed, the Company could be required to delay, scale back, or abandon some or all of its development programs and other operations, which could materially harm the Company’s business, financial condition and results of operations.
These financial statements have been prepared by management in accordance with GAAP and this basis assumes that the Company will continue as a going concern, which contemplates the realization of assets and the satisfaction of liabilities and commitments in the normal course of business. These financial statements do not include any adjustments that may result from the outcome of this uncertainty.
As of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, the Company’s existing cash resources and existing borrowing availability are sufficient to support planned operations for the next 12 months. As a result, management believes that the Company's existing financial resources are sufficient to continue operating activities for at least one year past the issuance date of the financial statements.
2.SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
(a)Cash, Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with a remaining maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. Additionally, the Company considers investments in money market funds with a floating net asset value to be cash equivalents. As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had $632.7 million and $840.9 million of cash and cash equivalents, which included cash equivalents of $609.0 million and $827.1 million of highly liquid investments at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, respectively.
As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had zero and $4.1 million, respectively, in an escrow account related to the securitization of the term loan with JP Morgan Chase included in restricted cash and cash equivalents. The term loan was repaid by the Company during the first quarter of 2021. Additionally, as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had zero and $4.0 million, respectively, included in non-current restricted cash and cash equivalents for the required deposit to Pinal Land Holdings, LLC ("PLH"), which was deposited in escrow during the first quarter of 2021 pursuant to the terms of the land conveyance agreement. Further, as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company had zero and $0.3 million, respectively, in refundable customer deposits included in current restricted cash and cash equivalents.
The reconciliation of cash and cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents to amounts presented in the consolidated statements of cash flows are as follows:
10

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
As of
June 30, 2021December 31, 2020June 30, 2020December 31, 2019
Cash and cash equivalents$632,694 $840,913 $698,386 $85,688 
Restricted cash and cash equivalents – current— 4,365 8,896 — 
Restricted cash and cash equivalents – non-current— 4,000 — 4,144 
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash and cash equivalents$632,694 $849,278 $707,282 $89,832 
(b)Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying value and fair value of the Company’s financial instruments are as follows:
As of June 30, 2021
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets
Cash equivalents – money market$608,985 $— $— $608,985 
Liabilities
Warrant liability$— $— $8,895 $8,895 
As of December 31, 2020
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets
Cash equivalents – money market$827,118 $— $— $827,118 
Restricted cash equivalents – money market4,100 — — 4,100 
Liabilities
Warrant liability
$— $— $7,335 $7,335 
In September 2019, Legacy Nikola entered into an agreement that required Legacy Nikola to issue, and the investor to purchase, Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock at a fixed price in April 2020 (the “Forward Contract Liability”), which was accounted for as a liability. The Forward Contract Liability was remeasured to its fair value each reporting period resulting in the recognition of zero and $1.3 million loss in other income (expense) on the consolidated statements of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, respectively. The Forward Contract Liability was settled in April 2020 with the issuance of Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock.
In determining the fair value of the Forward Contract Liability, estimates and assumptions impacting fair value included the estimated future value of the Company's Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock, discount rates and estimated time to liquidity. The following reflects the significant quantitative inputs used:
As of April 10, 2020
Estimated future value of Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock$10.00 
Discount rate— %
Time to liquidity (years)0
As a result of the Business Combination, the Company assumed a warrant liability (the "Warrant Liability") related to previously issued private warrants in connection with VectoIQ's initial public offering. The Warrant Liability was remeasured to its fair value at each reporting period and upon settlement. The change in fair value was recognized in revaluation of warrant liability on the consolidated statements of operations. The change in fair value of the Warrant Liability was as follows:
11

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
Warrant Liability
Estimated fair value at December 31, 20207,335 
Change in fair value1,560 
Estimated fair value at June 30, 20218,895 

The fair value of the warrants outstanding was estimated using the Black-Scholes model. The application of the Black-Scholes model requires the use of a number of inputs and significant assumptions including volatility. The following reflects the inputs and assumptions used:
As of
June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Stock price$18.06 $15.26 
Exercise price$11.50 $11.50 
Remaining term (in years)3.934.42
Volatility75 %75 %
Risk-free rate0.65 %0.30 %
Expected dividend yield— %— %

On June 22, 2021 (the "WVR Closing Date"), the Company entered into a Membership Interests Purchase Agreement (the “MIPA”) with Wabash Valley Resources LLC (“WVR”) and the sellers party thereto (collectively, the “Sellers”), pursuant to which, the Company purchased a 20% equity interest in WVR in exchange for cash and the Company’s common stock (see Note 5, Investments).

Under the MIPA, each Seller has a right but not the obligation, in its sole discretion, to cause the Company to purchase a portion of such Seller’s Shares outside the specified blackout windows, at $14.86 per share of common stock (the "Put Right"). The first blackout window is from the WVR Closing Date until the later of 90 days after the WVR Closing Date or the effectiveness of a registration statement with the SEC for the common stock consideration. The second blackout window ends on the one-year anniversary of the WVR Closing Date. The Sellers have 10 business days to exercise their Put Rights after each blackout window and the purchase option expires after this time. In accordance with the MIPA the maximum common share repurchase is $10.0 million in aggregate.

The Put Right is an embedded feature indexed to the Company's common stock pursuant to ASC 815-40 and accounted for in temporary equity, in accordance with ASC 480-10-S99-3A. The potential cash settlement from the common shares subject to the Put Right and the fair value of the embedded Put Right was recorded in temporary equity .

The fair value of the Put Right, a level 3 measurement, was estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation model. The application of the Monte Carlo simulation model requires the use of a number of inputs and significant assumptions including volatility. The fair value of the Put Right was $3.2 million as of the WVR Closing Date. The following reflects the inputs and assumptions used:
As of
June 22, 2021
Stock price$17.32 
Strike Price$14.86 
Volatility95 %
Risk-free rate0.10 %

(c)Recent Accounting Pronouncements
Recently issued accounting pronouncements not yet adopted
12

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
There have been no recently issued accounting pronouncements or changes in accounting pronouncements not yet adopted that are applicable or material to the Company as of June 30, 2021.
Recently adopted accounting pronouncements
In December 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board ("FASB") issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. The pronouncement is effective for fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted the ASU on January 1, 2021 and it did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-06, which simplifies the guidance on the issuer's accounting for convertible debt instruments by removing the separation models for (1) convertible debt with a cash conversion feature and (2) convertible instruments with a beneficial conversion feature. As a result, entities will not separately present in equity an embedded conversion feature in such debt and will account for convertible debt instruments wholly as debt, unless certain other conditions are met. The elimination of these models will reduce reported interest expense and increase reported net income for entities that have issued a convertible instrument that is within the scope of ASU 2020-06. ASU 2020-06 requires the application of the if-converted method for calculating diluted earnings per share. The treasury method will no longer be available. The guidance is effective for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2021, and interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted, but only at the beginning of the year. The Company early adopted the ASU on January 1, 2021, and there was no impact to the Company's consolidated financial statements.
In January 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-01, Investments – Equity Securities (Topic 321), Investments - Equity Method and Joint Ventures (Topic 323), and Derivative and Hedging (Topic 815), which addresses accounting for the transition into and out of the equity method and provides clarification of the interaction of rules for equity securities, the equity method of accounting, and forward contracts and purchase options on certain types of securities. ASU 2020-01 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company adopted the ASU on January 1, 2021 and it did not have a material impact on the Company's consolidated financial statements.

13

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
3. BUSINESS COMBINATION

On June 3, 2020, the Company and VectoIQ consummated the merger contemplated by the Business Combination Agreement, with Legacy Nikola surviving the merger as a wholly-owned subsidiary of VectoIQ. Immediately prior to the closing of the Business Combination, all shares of outstanding redeemable convertible preferred stock of Legacy Nikola were automatically converted into shares of Legacy Nikola common stock. Upon the consummation of the Business Combination, each share of Legacy Nikola common stock issued and outstanding was canceled and converted into the right to receive 1.901 shares (the "Exchange Ratio") of the Company's common stock (the "Per Share Merger Consideration").

Upon the closing of the Business Combination, VectoIQ's certificate of incorporation was amended and restated to, among other things, increase the total number of authorized shares of all classes of capital stock to 750,000,000 shares, of which 600,000,000 shares were designated common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and of which 150,000,000 shares were designated preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share.

In connection with the execution of the Business Combination Agreement, VectoIQ entered into separate subscription agreements (each, a "Subscription Agreement") with a number of investors (each a "Subscriber"), pursuant to which the Subscribers agreed to purchase, and VectoIQ agreed to sell to the Subscribers, an aggregate of 52,500,000 shares of the Company's common stock (the "PIPE Shares"), for a purchase price of $10.00 per share and an aggregate purchase price of $525.0 million, in a private placement pursuant to the subscription agreements (the "PIPE"). The PIPE investment closed simultaneously with the consummation of the Business Combination.

Prior to the closing of the Business Combination, Legacy Nikola repurchased 2,850,930 shares of Legacy Nikola's Series B redeemable convertible preferred stock at the price of $8.77 per share for an aggregate purchase price of $25.0 million pursuant to a Series B preferred stock repurchase agreement (the "Repurchase Agreement") with Nimbus Holdings LLC ("Nimbus"). The repurchase is retrospectively adjusted in the statement of stockholders' equity to reflect the Company’s equity structure for all periods presented.

Immediately following the Business Combination, pursuant to a redemption agreement, Nikola redeemed 7,000,000 shares of common stock from M&M Residual, LLC ("M&M Residual") at a purchase price of $10.00 per share. See Note 6, Related Party Transactions, for further details on the transaction.

The Business Combination is accounted for as a reverse recapitalization in accordance with GAAP. Under this method of accounting, VectoIQ was treated as the "acquired" company for financial reporting purposes. See Note 1, Basis of Presentation, for further details. Accordingly, for accounting purposes, the Business Combination was treated as the equivalent of Nikola issuing stock for the net assets of VectoIQ, accompanied by a recapitalization. The net assets of VectoIQ are stated at historical cost, with no goodwill or other intangible assets recorded.

Prior to the Business Combination, Legacy Nikola and VectoIQ filed separate standalone federal, state and local income tax returns. As a result of the Business Combination, structured as a reverse acquisition for tax purposes, Legacy Nikola, which was renamed Nikola Subsidiary Corporation in connection with the Business Combination (f/k/a Nikola Corporation), became the parent of the consolidated tax filing group, with Nikola Corporation (f/k/a VectoIQ Acquisition Corp.) as a subsidiary.

The following table reconciles the elements of the Business Combination to the consolidated statement of cash flows and the consolidated statement of changes in equity for the six months ended June 30, 2020:

14

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
Recapitalization
Cash - VectoIQ's trust and cash (net of redemptions)$238,358 
Cash - PIPE525,000 
Less: transaction costs and advisory fees paid(51,200)
Less: VectoIQ loan payoff in conjunction with close(422)
Less: M&M Residual redemption(70,000)
Less: Nimbus repurchase(25,000)
Net Business Combination and PIPE financing616,736 
Less: non-cash net liabilities assumed from VectoIQ(21,919)
Less: accrued transaction costs and advisory fees(295)
Net contributions from Business Combination and PIPE financing$594,522 

The number of shares of common stock issued immediately following the consummation of the Business Combination:

Number of Shares
Common stock, outstanding prior to Business Combination22,986,574 
Less: redemption of VectoIQ shares(2,702)
Common stock of VectoIQ22,983,872 
VectoIQ Founder Shares6,640,000 
Shares issued in PIPE52,500,000 
Less: M&M Residual redemption(7,000,000)
Less: Nimbus repurchase(2,850,930)
Business Combination and PIPE financing shares72,272,942 
Legacy Nikola shares (1)
288,631,536 
Total shares of common stock immediately after Business Combination360,904,478 

(1) The number of Legacy Nikola shares was determined from the 151,831,441 shares of Legacy Nikola common stock outstanding immediately prior to the closing of the Business Combination converted at the Exchange Ratio of 1.901. All fractional shares were rounded down.
4.BALANCE SHEET COMPONENTS
Inventory

Inventory consists of the following:

As of
June 30, 2021
Raw materials$2,267 
Work-in-process— 
Finished goods— 
Total inventory$2,267 
15

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is computed using standard cost, which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis.
Property, Plant and Equipment
Property, plant and equipment consist of the following at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
As of
June 30, 2021 December 31, 2020
Machinery and equipment$16,441 $14,820 
Furniture and fixtures1,480 1,480 
Leasehold improvements2,838 1,488 
Software5,793 4,285 
Finance lease assets34,920 34,775 
Construction-in-progress114,841 21,218 
Other2,040 1,750 
Property, plant and equipment, gross178,353 79,816 
Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization(11,986)(8,415)
Total property, plant and equipment, net$166,367 $71,401 

Construction-in-progress on the Company's consolidated balance sheets as of June 30, 2021 relates primarily to the construction of the Company's manufacturing plant in Coolidge, Arizona. The Company expects to place Phase 0.5 of the plant in service during the second half of 2021.

Depreciation expense for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 was $1.9 million and $1.5 million, respectively. Depreciation expense for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020 was $3.6 million and $2.9 million, respectively.
Accrued Expenses and Other Current Liabilities
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities consisted of the following at June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020:
As of
June 30, 2021December 31, 2020
Accrued payroll and payroll related expenses$1,739 $1,105 
Accrued deferred issuance costs637 285 
Accrued outsourced engineering services7,656 2,514 
Accrued purchases of property, plant and equipment5,181 2,533 
Accrued legal expenses8,547 8,845 
Other accrued liabilities1,804 2,457 
Current portion of finance lease liabilities1,161 1,070 
Total accrued expenses and other current liabilities$26,725 $18,809 
5. INVESTMENTS IN AFFILIATES
Nikola Iveco Europe GmbH

The Company and Iveco are parties to a series of agreements which established a joint venture in Europe, Nikola Iveco Europe GmbH. The operations of the joint venture are located in Ulm, Germany, and consist of manufacturing the battery-electric ("BEV") and fuel cell electric ("FCEV") Class 8 trucks for the European market, as well as for the North American market while the Company's greenfield manufacturing facility in Coolidge, Arizona, is being completed.
16

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

The agreements provide for a 50/50 ownership of the joint venture and a 50/50 allocation of the joint venture's production volumes and profits between Nikola and Iveco. Both parties are entitled to appoint an equal number of members to the shareholders' committee of the joint venture. Pursuant to the terms of the agreements, the Company and Iveco each contributed intellectual property licenses to their respective technology. During 2020, the Company contributed $8.8 million for a 50% interest in the joint venture, in accordance with the amended contribution agreement. The intellectual property licenses contributed to the joint venture by Nikola are related to intellectual property related to Nikola-developed BEV and FCEV technology for use in the European market. Iveco contributed to the joint venture a license for the S-WAY technology for use in the European market.

Nikola Iveco Europe GmbH is considered a variable interest entity ("VIE") due to insufficient equity to finance its activities without additional subordinated financial support. The Company is not considered the primary beneficiary as it does not have the power to direct the activities that most significantly impact the economic performance based on the terms of the agreements. Accordingly, the VIE is accounted for under the equity method.

As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the carrying amount of the Company's equity interest was $6.3 million and $8.4 million, respectively, and is included in investment in affiliates on the consolidated balance sheets. Equity in net loss of affiliates on the consolidated statements of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, is as follows:

Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Equity in net loss of affiliates$(1,126)$— $(1,920)$— 

The Company does not guarantee debt for, or have other financial support obligations to the entity and its maximum exposure to loss in connection with its continuing involvement with the entity is limited to the carrying value of the investment.

Wabash Valley Resources LLC

On June 22, 2021, the Company entered into a MIPA with WVR and the Sellers, pursuant to which, the Company purchased a 20% equity interest in WVR in exchange for $25 million in cash and 1,682,367 shares of the Company’s common stock. WVR is developing a clean hydrogen project in West Terre Haute, Indiana, including a hydrogen production facility. The common stock consideration was calculated based on the 30-day average closing stock price of the Company, or $14.86 per share, and the Company issued 1,682,367 shares of its common stock. As of the WVR Closing Date, the fair value of the stock consideration and Put Right was $32.4 million, based upon the closing price of the Company's common stock as of the WVR Closing Date and the fair value of the embedded Put Right (see Note 2).

The Company's interest in WVR is accounted for under the equity method and is included in investment in affiliates on the consolidated balance sheets. As of the WVR Closing Date, the fair value of the Company's investment in WVR was approximately $57.4 million, which consists of the Company's cash, common stock consideration, and the Put Right. The common stock consideration subject to the Put Right was classified as temporary equity on the consolidated balance sheets for $13.2 million which includes the fair value of the embedded Put Right of $3.2 million. Refer below for a reconciliation of the fair value of the Company's investment in WVR:

17

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
Investment in WVR
Common stock issued for investment in affiliates including common stock subject to Put Right$29,139 
Cash consideration for investment in affiliates25,000 
Fair value of cash and common stock consideration for WVR54,139 
Fair value of embedded Put Right3,237 
Total investment in affiliates$57,376 

The excess of the initial fair value of the Company's investment over the underlying equity in the carrying value of the net assets of WVR has not yet been allocated within the investment account. The Company expects to complete the allocation by the end of fiscal year 2021.
6. RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
Related Party Aircraft Charter Agreement
The Company previously entered into an aircraft charter arrangement with its former Executive Chairman of the board of directors and Legacy Nikola's former Chief Executive Officer. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, the Company recognized expense of $0.1 million and $0.2 million, respectively, for the business use of the aircraft. The aircraft charter arrangement was terminated effective October 2020 and there are no such amounts to report subsequent to the termination date.
Related Party Income
During the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, the Company recorded an immaterial amount for the provision of solar installation services to the former Executive Chairman, which were billed on a time and materials basis. Solar installation services were terminated effective October 2020 and there are no such amounts to report subsequent to the termination date.
Related Party Redemption of Common Stock
Immediately following the Business Combination, pursuant to a redemption agreement, the Company redeemed 7,000,000 shares of common stock from M&M Residual at a purchase price of $10.00 per share, payable in immediately available funds. The number of shares to be redeemed and the redemption price were determined and agreed upon during negotiations between the various parties to the Business Combination, including the former Executive Chairman and representatives of VectoIQ, Legacy Nikola and the Subscribers.

Former Related Party License and Service Agreements
During the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, the Company issued 7,390,436 and 9,443,353 shares of Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock to Iveco S.p.A ("Iveco"), a former related party, in exchange for $72.0 million and $92.0 million of prepaid in-kind services, respectively. During the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, $14.8 million and $10.5 million, respectively, of in-kind services were recognized in research and development on the consolidated statements of operations. During the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, $27.7 million and $17.2 million, respectively, of in-kind services were recognized in research and development on the consolidated statements of operations. As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, $18.5 million and $46.3 million prepaid in-kind services, respectively, were reflected on the consolidated balance sheets.

During the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 the Company issued 5,132,289 shares of Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock to Iveco, in exchange for $50.0 million in cash. As of June 3, 2020, Iveco was no longer considered a related party under ASC 850.

Former Related Party Research and Development
18

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
During the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, the Company recorded research and development expenses of $5.6 million and $6.5 million, respectively, from a former related party. As of June 3, 2020, the entity was no longer considered a related party and as a result there are no such amounts to report for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021.
Former Related Party Stock Repurchase

In March 2020, the Company entered into a letter agreement with Nimbus in which Nimbus agreed to terminate the Nimbus redemption letter agreement dated August 3, 2018. Concurrently, the Company entered into an agreement with Nimbus, whereby the Company agreed to repurchase 2,850,930 shares of Series B preferred stock from Nimbus at a share price of $8.77 for an aggregate repurchase price of $25.0 million. The parties agreed that the repurchase price constituted the price that Nimbus would otherwise be entitled to under the Nimbus redemption letter agreement. The number of shares to be repurchased was negotiated by the Company and Nimbus as a mechanism to compensate Nimbus for agreeing to relinquish its previous redemption rights granted in the Nimbus redemption letter agreement.

The repurchase was contingent on completion of the Business Combination which occurred during the second quarter of 2020, and the Company repurchased the shares in conjunction with the closing of the Business Combination (see Note 3, Business Combination).

As of June 3, 2020, Nimbus was no longer considered a related party.
7.DEBT
Term Note
Debt consisted of a term note of zero and $4.1 million as of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020.
In January 2018, the Company entered into a term note with JP Morgan Chase, pursuant to which the Company borrowed $4.1 million to fund equipment purchases. The term note accrued interest at 2.43% per annum and was payable on or before January 31, 2019. The term note was secured by restricted cash.
In February 2019, the Company amended the term note to extend its term by one year and increased the interest rate to 3.00% per annum. In February 2020, the Company further amended the term note and extended its term for one year, to January 31, 2021. The term note accrued interest at a rate equal to the LIBOR rate for the applicable interest period multiplied by the statutory reserve rate as determined by the Federal Reserve Board.

During the first quarter of 2021, the Company repaid the $4.1 million term note.
Payroll Protection Program Note

In April 2020, the Company entered into a note with JP Morgan Chase under the Small Business Administration Paycheck Program established under Section 1102 of the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act, pursuant to which the Company borrowed $4.1 million (the "Note"). The Note accrued interest at a rate of 0.98% per annum and matured in 24 months. On April 30, 2020, the Company returned the $4.1 million in proceeds from the Note to JP Morgan Chase.
8. CAPITAL STRUCTURE
Shares Authorized
As of June 30, 2021, the Company had a total of 750,000,000 shares authorized for issuance with 600,000,000 shares designated as common stock and 150,000,000 shares designated as preferred stock.

Warrants

19

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
As of June 30, 2021, the Company had 760,915 private warrants outstanding. Each private warrant entitles the registered holder to purchase one share of common stock at a price of $11.50 per share, subject to adjustment, at any time commencing 30 days after the completion of the Business Combination. For the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, the Company recorded a $2.5 million and $29.2 million loss, respectively, for revaluation of warrant liability on the consolidated statements of operations. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, the Company recorded a $1.6 million and $29.2 million loss, respectively, for revaluation of warrant liability on the consolidated statements of operations. As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, the Company recorded $8.9 million and $7.3 million, respectively, for warrant liability related to the private warrants outstanding.

The exercise price and number of common stock issuable upon exercise of the private warrants may be adjusted in certain circumstances including in the event of a share dividend, or recapitalization, reorganization, merger or consolidation. However, the private warrants will not be adjusted for issuance of common stock at a price below their exercise price.

Stock Purchase Agreement

On June 11, 2021, the Company entered into a common stock purchase agreement (the "Purchase Agreement") and a registration rights agreement (the "Registration Rights Agreement") with Tumim Stone Capital LLC ("Tumim"), pursuant to which Tumim has committed to purchase up to $300 million in shares of the Company's common stock, subject to certain limitations and conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement. The Company shall not issue or sell any shares of common stock under the Purchase Agreement which, when aggregated with all other shares of common stock beneficially owned by Tumim, would result in beneficial ownership of more than 4.99% of the Company's outstanding shares of common stock.

Under the terms of the Purchase Agreement, the Company has the right, but not the obligation, to sell to Tumim, shares of common stock over the period commencing on the date of the Purchase Agreement (the “Tumim Closing Date”) and ending on the first day of the month following the 36-month anniversary of the Tumim Closing Date, provided that a registration statement covering the resale of shares of common stock that have been and may be issued under the Purchase Agreement is declared effective by the SEC. The registration statement covering the offer and sale of up to 18,012,845 shares of common stock to Tumim was declared effective on June 30, 2021. The purchase price will be calculated as 97% of the volume weighted average prices of the Company's common stock during normal trading hours for three consecutive trading days commencing on the first trading day immediately succeeding the purchase notice date.

Concurrently with the signing of the Purchase Agreement, the Company issued 155,703 shares of its common stock to Tumim as a commitment fee ("Commitment Shares"). The total fair value of the shares issued for the commitment fee of $2.6 million was recorded in selling, general, and administrative expense on the Company's consolidated statements of operations.

As of June 30, 2021, the Company has not sold any shares to Tumim under the terms of the Purchase Agreement.
9. STOCK BASED COMPENSATION EXPENSE
2017 and 2020 Stock Plans
Legacy Nikola's 2017 Stock Option Plan (the “2017 Plan”) provides for the grant of incentive and nonqualified options to purchase Legacy Nikola common stock to officers, employees, directors, and consultants of Legacy Nikola. Options are granted at a price not less than the fair market value on the date of grant and generally become exercisable between one and four years after the date of grant. Options generally expire ten years from the date of grant. Outstanding awards under the 2017 Plan continue to be subject to the terms and conditions of the 2017 Plan.

Each Legacy Nikola option from the 2017 Plan that was outstanding immediately prior to the Business Combination, whether vested or unvested, was converted into an option to purchase a number of shares of common stock (each such option, an "Exchanged Option") equal to the product (rounded down to the nearest whole number) of (i) the number of shares of Legacy Nikola common stock subject to such Legacy Nikola option immediately prior to the Business Combination and (ii) the Exchange Ratio, at an exercise price per share (rounded up to the nearest whole cent) equal to (A) the exercise price per share of such Legacy Nikola option immediately prior to the consummation of the Business Combination, divided by (B) the Exchange Ratio. Except as specifically provided in the Business Combination Agreement, following the Business Combination, each
20

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
Exchanged Option will continue to be governed by the same terms and conditions (including vesting and exercisability terms) as were applicable to the corresponding former Legacy Nikola option immediately prior to the consummation of the Business Combination. All stock option activity was retroactively restated to reflect the Exchanged Options.

At the Company's special meeting of stockholders held on June 2, 2020, the stockholders approved the Nikola Corporation 2020 Stock Incentive Plan (the "2020 Plan") and the Nikola Corporation 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (the "2020 ESPP"). The 2020 Plan and the 2020 ESPP were previously approved, subject to stockholder approval, by the Company's board of directors on May 6, 2020. The aggregate number of shares authorized for issuance under the 2020 Plan will not exceed 42,802,865, plus the number of shares subject to outstanding awards as of the closing of the Business Combination under the 2017 Plan that are subsequently forfeited or terminated. The aggregate number of shares available for issuance under the 2020 ESPP is 4,000,000.

The 2020 Plan provides for the grant of incentive and nonqualified stock option, restricted stock units ("RSUs"), restricted share awards, stock appreciation awards, and cash-based awards to employees, outside directors, and consultants of the Company. The 2020 Plan and the 2020 ESPP became effective immediately upon the closing of the Business Combination. No offerings have been authorized to date by the Company's board of directors under the ESPP.
Stock Options
The Company utilizes the Black-Scholes option pricing model for estimating the fair value of options granted. Options vest in accordance with the terms set forth in the grant letter. Time-based options generally vest ratably over a period of approximately 36 months. Changes in stock options are as follows:
OptionsWeighted
Average
Exercise Price
Per share
Weighted Average
Remaining
Contractual Term
(Years)
Outstanding at December 31, 202032,529,224 $1.28 7.82
Granted— $— 
Exercised2,929,917 $1.24 
Cancelled39,617 $3.00 
Outstanding at June 30, 202129,559,690 $1.29 7.37
Vested and exercisable as of June 30, 202128,782,924 $1.24 7.35
Restricted Stock Units

The fair value of RSUs is based on the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the grant date. The time-based RSUs generally vest semi-annually over a three year period or, in the case of executive officers, cliff-vest following the third anniversary from the date of grant. Certain RSUs awarded to key employees contain performance conditions related to achievement of strategic and operational milestones ("Performance RSUs"). As of June 30, 2021, not all of the performance conditions are probable to be achieved. Compensation expense has only been recognized for those conditions that are assumed to be probable. The Company updates its estimates related to the probability and timing of achievement of the operational milestones each period until the award either vests or is forfeited. In addition, for certain technical engineering employees the awards cliff vest after a three year period or vest on the achievement of certain operational milestones. The RSUs to directors have a vesting cliff of one year after the grant date. Changes in RSUs are as follows:

21

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
Number of RSUs
Balance at December 31, 2020
5,026,531 
Granted6,691,926 
Released1,268,227 
Cancelled504,968 
Balance at June 30, 2021
9,945,262 

Market Based RSUs

The fair value of Market Based RSUs was determined using a Monte Carlo simulation model that utilizes significant assumptions, including volatility, that determine the probability of satisfying the market condition stipulated in the award to calculate the fair value of the award. The Market Based RSUs contain a stock price index as a benchmark for vesting. These awards have three milestones that each vest depending upon a consecutive 20-trading day stock price target of the Company’s common stock. The shares vested are transferred to the award holders upon the completion of the requisite service period ending June 3, 2023, and upon achievement certification by the Company's board of directors. If the target price for the tranche is not achieved by the end of requisite service period, the Market Based RSUs are forfeited. Changes in Market Based RSUs are as follows:

Number of Market Based RSUs
Balance at December 31, 2020
13,317,712 
Granted— 
Released— 
Cancelled— 
Balance at June 30, 2021
13,317,712 

Stock Compensation Expense
The following table presents the impact of stock-based compensation expense on the consolidated statements of operations for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Research and development$10,228 $2,880 $20,550 $3,238 
Selling, general, and administrative42,442 35,347 82,386 36,302 
Total stock-based compensation expense$52,670 $38,227 $102,936 $39,540 

As of June 30, 2021, total unrecognized compensation expense was as follows:
Unrecognized compensation expense
Options$1,509 
Market Based RSUs225,096 
RSUs164,895 
Total unrecognized compensation expense at June 30, 2021
$391,500 
10. INCOME TAXES
22

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)

To calculate the interim tax provision, at the end of each interim period the Company estimates the annual effective tax rate and applies that to its ordinary quarterly earnings. The effect of changes in the enacted tax laws or rates is recognized in the interim period in which the change occurs. The computation of the annual estimated effective tax rate at each interim period requires certain estimates and judgments including, but not limited to, the expected operating income for the year, projections of the proportion of income earned and taxed in foreign jurisdictions, permanent differences between book and tax amounts, and the likelihood of recovering deferred tax assets generated in the current year. The accounting estimates used to compute the provision for income taxes may change as new events occur, additional information is obtained, or the tax environment changes.
Income tax expense was immaterial for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.
11. COMMITMENTS AND CONTINGENCIES
Legal Proceedings

The Company is subject to legal and regulatory actions that arise from time to time. The assessment as to whether a loss is probable or reasonably possible, and as to whether such loss or a range of such loss is estimable, often involves significant judgment about future events, and the outcome of litigation is inherently uncertain. Other than as described below, there is no material pending or threatened litigation against the Company that remains outstanding as of June 30, 2021.

Regulatory and Governmental Investigations and Related Internal Review

On September 10, 2020, Hindenburg Research LLC reported on certain aspects of the Company’s business and operations. The Company and its board of directors retained Kirkland & Ellis LLP to conduct an internal review in connection with the Hindenburg article (the “Internal Review”), and Kirkland & Ellis promptly contacted the Division of Enforcement of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission to make it aware of the commencement of the Internal Review. The Company subsequently learned that the Staff of the Division of Enforcement had previously opened an investigation. On September 14, 2020, the Company and five of its officers and employees, including Mark Russell, our Chief Executive Officer, received subpoenas from the Staff of the Division of Enforcement as a part of a fact-finding inquiry related to aspects of the Company’s business as well as certain matters described in the Hindenburg article. The Staff of the Division of Enforcement issued additional subpoenas to another three of the Company’s officers and employees, including Kim Brady, the Company's Chief Financial Officer, on September 21, 2020 and to the Company’s current and former directors on September 30, 2020.

The Company and Mr. Milton also received grand jury subpoenas from the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Southern District of New York (the “SDNY”) on September 19, 2020. On September 20, 2020, Mr. Milton offered to voluntarily step down from his position as Executive Chairman, as a member of the Company’s board of directors, including all committees thereof, and from all positions as an employee and officer of the Company. The board accepted his resignation and appointed Stephen Girsky as Chairman of the board of directors. The Company subsequently has appointed three new board members, Steve Shindler, Bruce Smith and Mary Petrovich.

The Company also received a grand jury subpoena from the N.Y. County District Attorney’s Office on September 21, 2020. On October 16, 2020, the N.Y. County District Attorney’s Office agreed to defer its investigation; it has not withdrawn its subpoena issued to the Company, but has informed the Company that no further productions to it are necessary at this time.

On October 28, 2020, the Company received an information request from The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC, seeking an update on the status of the Staff of the Division of Enforcement and SDNY inquiries, which the Company provided.

On March 24, 2021, the Staff of the Division of Enforcement issued an additional subpoena to the Company related to its projected 2021 cash flow and anticipated use of funds from 2021 capital raises.

The Company is committed to cooperating fully with the Staff of the Division of Enforcement and the SDNY investigations, which are ongoing. As such, the Company's counsel frequently engages with the Staff of the Division of Enforcement and the SDNY. Further, the Company has made voluminous productions of information and made witnesses available for interviews. The Company will continue to comply with the requests of the Staff of the Division of Enforcement and the SDNY and expect to make additional productions in the future. The documents and information requested in the
23

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
subpoenas include materials concerning Mr. Milton’s and the Company’s statements regarding the Company’s business operations and the future of the Company.

As part of the Internal Review, which has been substantially completed, Kirkland & Ellis had full access to Company data, emails and documents for collection and review. No request by Kirkland & Ellis for information from the Company was denied. Kirkland & Ellis was also given access to data contained on personal devices for over three dozen of our employees. Kirkland & Ellis, including with the assistance of contract attorneys, reviewed relevant documents in the legal, investor relations, finance, and human resources areas as well as Company emails from January 1, 2016 through December 31, 2020, employee text messages, documents found in our data room and other corporate documents. The Internal Review also included targeted interviews of over thirty (30) Company personnel. Additionally, as part of the Internal Review, Kirkland & Ellis retained automotive experts ("Automotive Experts") at a well-known consulting firm to conduct an independent assessment of the current state of our technology development. Refer to Note 14, Commitments and Contingencies, within the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2020, for further details.

The legal and other professional costs the Company incurred during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 in connection with the Internal Review and disclosed elsewhere in this Quarterly Report include approximately $3.2 million and $6.2 million, respectively, expensed for Mr. Milton’s attorneys’ fees under his indemnification agreement with the Company. As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020 the Company accrued approximately $6.4 million and $6.6 million, respectively, in legal and other professional costs for Mr. Milton's attorneys' fees under his indemnification agreement. The Company expects to incur additional costs associated with the Staff of the Division of Enforcement and the SDNY investigations and the Internal Review during fiscal year 2021, which will be expensed as incurred and which could be significant in the periods in which they are recorded.

On July 29, the U.S. Attorney for the SDNY announced the unsealing of a criminal indictment charging Trevor Milton with two counts of securities fraud and one count of wire fraud. That same day, the Securities and Exchange Commission announced charges against Mr. Milton for alleged violations of federal securities laws.

The Company cannot predict the ultimate outcome of the Staff of the Division of Enforcement and the SDNY investigations or the litigation against Mr. Milton, nor can it predict whether any other governmental authorities will initiate separate investigations or litigation. The outcome of the Staff of the Division of Enforcement and the SDNY investigations and any related legal and administrative proceedings could include a wide variety of outcomes, including the institution of administrative, civil injunctive or criminal proceedings involving the Company and/or current or former employees, officers and/or directors in addition to Mr. Milton, the imposition of fines and other penalties, remedies and/or sanctions, modifications to business practices and compliance programs and/or referral to other governmental agencies for other appropriate actions. It is not possible to accurately predict at this time when matters relating to the Staff of the Division of Enforcement and the SDNY investigations will be completed, the final outcome of the Staff of the Division of Enforcement and the SDNY investigations, what additional actions, if any, may be taken by the Staff of the Division of Enforcement, the SDNY or by other governmental agencies, or the effect that such actions may have on our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition, which could be material.

The Staff of the Division of Enforcement and the SDNY investigations, including any matters identified in the Internal Review, could also result in (1) third-party claims against the Company, which may include the assertion of claims for monetary damages, including but not limited to interest, fees, and expenses, (2) damage to the Company's business or reputation, (3) loss of, or adverse effect on, cash flow, assets, goodwill, results of operations, business, prospects, profits or business value, including the possibility of certain of the Company's existing contracts being cancelled, (4) adverse consequences on the Company's ability to obtain or continue financing for current or future projects and/or (5) claims by directors, officers, employees, affiliates, advisors, attorneys, agents, debt holders or other interest holders or constituents of the Company or its subsidiaries, any of which could have a material adverse effect on the Company's business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.

Further, to the extent that these investigations and any resulting third-party claims yield adverse results over time, such results could jeopardize the Company's operations and exhaust its cash reserves, and could cause stockholders to lose their entire investment.

Shareholder Securities Litigation

24

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
Beginning on September 15, 2020, six putative class action lawsuits were filed against the Company and certain of its current and former officers and directors, asserting violations of federal securities laws under Section 10(b) and Section 20(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and, in one case, violations of the Unfair Competition Law under California law (the “Shareholder Securities Litigation”). The complaints generally allege that the Company and certain of its officers and directors made false and/or misleading statements in press releases and public filings regarding the Company's business plan and prospects. The actions are: Borteanu v. Nikola Corporation, et al. (Case No. 2:20-cv-01797-JZB), filed by Daniel Borteanu in the United States District Court of the District of Arizona on September 15, 2020; Salem v. Nikola Corporation, et al. (Case No. 1:20-cv-04354), filed by Arab Salem in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York on September 16, 2020; Wojichowski v. Nikola Corporation, et al. (Case No. 2:20-cv-01819-DLR), filed by John Wojichowski in the United States District Court for the District of Arizona on September 17, 2020; Malo v. Nikola Corporation, et al. (Case No. 5:20-cv-02168), filed by Douglas Malo in the United States District Court for the Central District of California on October 16, 2020; and Holzmacher, et al. v. Nikola Corporation, et al. (Case No. 2:20-cv-2123-JJT), filed by Albert Holzmacher, Michael Wood and Tate Wood in the United States District Court for the District of Arizona on November 3, 2020, and Eves v. Nikola Corporation, et al. (Case No. 2:20-cv-02168-DLR), filed by William Eves in the United States District Court for the District of Arizona on November 10, 2020. In October 2020, stipulations by and among the parties to extend the time for the defendants to respond to the complaints until a lead plaintiff, lead counsel, and an operative complaint are identified were entered as orders in certain of the filed actions. On November 16, 2020 and December 8, 2020 respectively, orders in the Malo and Salem actions were entered to transfer the actions to the United States District Court for the District of Arizona.

On November 16, 2020, ten motions both to consolidate the pending securities actions and to be appointed as lead plaintiff were filed by putative class members. On December 15, 2020, the United States District Court for the District of Arizona consolidated the actions under lead case Borteanu v. Nikola Corporation, et al., No. CV-20-01797-PXL-SPL, and appointed Angelo Baio as the “Lead Plaintiff”. On December 23, 2020, a motion for reconsideration of the Court’s order appointing the Lead Plaintiff was filed. On December 30, 2020, a petition for writ of mandamus seeking to vacate the District Court’s Lead Plaintiff order and directing the court to appoint another Lead Plaintiff was filed before the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, Case No. 20-73819. The motion for reconsideration was denied on February 18, 2021. On July 23, 2021, the Ninth Circuit granted in part the mandamus petition, vacated the district court’s December 15, 2020 order, and remanded the case to the District Court to reevaluate the appointment of a Lead Plaintiff.

On January 28, 2021, the district court entered a scheduling order in the consolidated lawsuit. On March 2, 2021, pursuant to a stipulation jointly submitted by the parties, the district court vacated that scheduling order and stayed the securities action pending disposition of the pending mandamus petition.

Plaintiffs seek an unspecified amount in damages, attorneys’ fees, and other relief. The Company intends to vigorously defend itself. The Company is unable to estimate the potential loss or range of loss, if any, associated with these lawsuits, which could be material.

Derivative Litigation

Beginning on September 23, 2020, two purported shareholder derivative actions were filed in the United States District Court for the District of Delaware (Byun v. Milton, et al., Case No. 1:20-cv-01277-UNA; Salguocar v. Girsky et. al., Case No. 1:20-cv-01404-UNA), purportedly on behalf of the Company, against certain of the Company's current and former directors alleging breaches of fiduciary duties, violations of Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act, and gross mismanagement. The Byun action also brings claims for unjust enrichment and abuse of control, while the Salguocar action brings a claim for waste of corporate assets. On October 19, 2020, the Byun action was stayed until 30 days after the earlier of (a) the Shareholder Securities Litigation being dismissed in their entirety with prejudice; (b) defendants filing an answer to any complaint in the Shareholder Securities Litigation; or (c) a joint request by plaintiff and defendants to lift the stay. On November 17, 2020, the Byun and Salguocar actions were consolidated as In re Nikola Corporation Derivative Litigation, Lead Case No. 20-cv-01277-CFC. The consolidated action remains stayed.

On December 18, 2020, a purported shareholder derivative action was filed in the United States District Court for the District of Arizona, Huhn v. Milton et al., Case No. 2:20-cv-02437-DWL, purportedly on behalf of the Company, against certain of the Company’s current and former directors alleging breaches of fiduciary duties, violations of Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act, unjust enrichment, and against defendant Jeff Ubben, a member of the Company’s board of directors, insider selling and misappropriation of information. On January 26, 2021, the Huhn action was stayed until 30 days after the earlier of
25

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
(a) the Shareholder Securities Litigation being dismissed in its entirety with prejudice; (b) defendants filing an answer to any complaint in the Shareholder Securities Litigation; or (c) a joint request by plaintiff and defendants to lift the stay.

The complaints seek unspecified monetary damages, costs and fees associated with bringing the actions, and reform of the Company's corporate governance, risk management and operating practices. The Company intends to vigorously defend against the foregoing complaints. The Company is unable to estimate the potential loss or range of loss, if any, associated with these lawsuits, which could be material.

In addition, on March 8, 2021, the Company received a demand letter from a law firm representing a purported stockholder of the Company alleging facts and claims substantially the same as many of the facts and claims in the filed derivative shareholder lawsuit. The demand letter requests that the board of directors (i) undertake an independent internal investigation into certain board members and management’s purported violations of Delaware and/or federal law; and (ii) commence a civil action against those members of the board and management for alleged fiduciary breaches. In April 2021, the board of directors formed a demand review committee, consisting of independent directors Bruce L. Smith, and Mary L. Petrovich, to review such demands and provide input to the Company. There can be no assurance as to whether any litigation will be commenced by or against the Company by the purported shareholder with respect to the claims set forth in the demand letter, or whether any such litigation could be material.

Books and Record Demands Pursuant to Delaware General Corporation Law Section 220

The Company has received a number of demand letters pursuant to Section 220 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (“DGCL”), seeking disclosure of certain of the Company’s records. The Company has responded to those demands, stating its belief that the demand letters fail to fully comply with the requirements of Section 220 of the DGCL. However, in the interest of resolution and while preserving all rights of the defendants, the Company has engaged in negotiations with the shareholders, and has provided certain information that the Company had reasonably available to it.

On January 15, 2021, Plaintiff Frances Gatto filed a complaint in Delaware Chancery Court seeking to compel inspection of books and records pursuant to Section 220 of the DGCL. On January 26, 2021, Plaintiff’s counsel and the Company filed a joint letter, notifying the Court that the parties are engaged in dialogue regarding Plaintiff’s demand, and the Company need not answer or otherwise respond to the complaint at this time. The parties provided a status update to the Court on July 26, 2021, and have proposed to provide a further update by September 24, 2021.

Commitments and Contingencies on Land Conveyance
In February 2019, the Company was conveyed 430 acres of land in Coolidge, Arizona, by PLH. The purpose of the land conveyance was to incentivize the Company to locate its manufacturing facility in Coolidge, Arizona, and provide additional jobs to the region. The Company fulfilled its requirement to commence construction within the period defined by the agreement and is required to complete construction of the manufacturing facility within five years of February 2019 (the “Manufacturing Facility Deadline”).
If the Company fails to meet the Manufacturing Facility Deadline, the Company may extend the completion deadline by paying PLH $0.2 million per month, until construction is completed (the "Monthly Payment Option"). The extension of the Manufacturing Facility Deadline beyond two years will require express written consent of PLH. If the Company does not exercise the Monthly Payment Option, fails to make timely payments on the Monthly Payment Option, or fails to complete construction by the extended Manufacturing Facility Deadline, PLH is entitled to either the $4.0 million security deposit or may reacquire the land and property at the appraised value to be determined by independent appraisers selected by the Company and PLH.
12. NET LOSS PER SHARE
The following table sets forth the computation of the basic and diluted net loss per share for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.
26

NIKOLA CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(UNAUDITED)
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Numerator:
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(143,231)$(129,189)$(263,455)$(162,335)
Less: revaluation of warrant liability— — — — 
Adjusted net loss$(143,231)$(129,189)$(263,455)$(162,335)
Denominator:
Weighted average shares outstanding, basic394,577,711 303,785,616 393,390,377 287,822,558 
Dilutive effect of common stock issuable from assumed exercise of warrants— — — — 
Weighted average shares outstanding, diluted394,577,711 303,785,616 393,390,377 287,822,558 
Net loss per share:
Basic$(0.36)$(0.43)$(0.67)$(0.56)
Diluted$(0.36)$(0.43)$(0.67)$(0.56)

Basic net loss per share is computed by dividing net loss for the period by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period.

Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss, adjusted for the revaluation of warrant liability for the private warrants, by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period, adjusted for the dilutive effect of shares of common stock equivalents resulting from the assumed exercise of the warrants. The treasury stock method was used to calculate the potential dilutive effect of these common stock equivalents.

Potentially dilutive shares were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss when their effect was antidilutive. The following outstanding common stock equivalents were excluded from the computation of diluted net loss per share for the periods presented because including them would have been anti-dilutive.
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
Outstanding warrants760,915 23,890,000 760,915 23,890,000 
Stock options, including performance stock options29,559,690 39,717,079 29,559,690 39,717,079 
Restricted stock units, including market based RSUs23,262,974 18,519,000 23,262,974 18,519,000 
Total53,583,579 82,126,079 53,583,579 82,126,079 

13. SUBSEQUENT EVENTS

Issuance of common stock under Purchase Agreement

On July 12, 2021, the Company issued 1,004,120 shares of common stock under the terms of the Purchase Agreement to Tumim for proceeds of $14.8 million.

On July 30, 2021, the Company issued a purchase notice to Tumim to purchase 2,909,393 shares of the Company's common stock. Proceeds from this sale will be approximately $30.0 million to $35.0 million based on the volume weighted average prices of the Company's common stock from July 30, 2021 through August 3, 2021.
27


ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
This report contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. When used in this report, the words “anticipate,” “believe,” “expect,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” "will", and similar expressions are intended to identify forward looking statements. These are statements that relate to future periods and include our financial and business performance; expected timing with respect to the buildout of our manufacturing facilities, joint venture with Iveco and production and attributes of our BEV and FCEV trucks; expectations regarding our hydrogen fuel station rollout plan; timing of completion of prototypes, validation testing, volume production and other milestones; securing components for our trucks on acceptable terms and in a timely manner; changes in our strategy, future operations, financial position, estimated revenues and losses, projected costs, prospects and plans; planned collaboration with our business partners; our future capital requirements and sources and uses of cash; the potential outcome of investigations, litigation, complaints, product liability claims and/or adverse publicity; the implementation, market acceptance and success of our business model; developments relating to our competitors and industry; the impact of health epidemics, including the COVID-19 pandemic, on our business and the actions we may take in response thereto; our expectations regarding our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection and not infringe on the rights of others; our ability to obtain funding for our operations; the outcome of any known and unknown regulatory proceedings; our business, expansion plans and opportunities; changes in applicable laws or regulations; and anticipated trends and challenges in our business and the markets in which we operate.

Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expected. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, those risks discussed in Item 1A of this report, as well as our ability to execute our business model, including market acceptance of our planned products and services; changes in applicable laws or regulations; risks associated with the outcome of any legal, regulatory, or judicial proceeding; the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business; our ability to raise capital; our ability to compete; the success of our business collaborations; regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries; the possibility that we may be adversely affected by other economic, business, and/or competitive factors; and our history of operating losses. These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date hereof. We expressly disclaim any obligation or undertaking to update any forward-looking statements contained herein to reflect any change in our expectations with regard thereto or any change in events, conditions or circumstances on which any such statement is based.

In this report, all references to “Nikola,” “we,” “us,” or “our” mean Nikola Corporation.

Nikola™ is a trademark of Nikola Corporation. We also refer to trademarks of other corporations and organizations in this report.

The below discussion should be read in conjunction with Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and the audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2020 included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Overview
We are a technology innovator and integrator, working to develop innovative energy and transportation solutions. We are pioneering a business model that will enable corporate customers to integrate next-generation truck technology, hydrogen fueling infrastructure, and related maintenance. By creating this ecosystem, we and our strategic business partners and suppliers hope to build a long-term competitive advantage for clean technology vehicles and next generation fueling solutions.
Our expertise lies in design, innovation, and software and engineering. We assemble, integrate, and commission our vehicles in collaboration with our business partners and suppliers. Our approach includes leveraging strategic partnerships to help lower cost, increase capital efficiency and increase speed to market.
We operate in two business units: Truck and Energy. The Truck business unit is developing and commercializing BEV and FCEV Class 8 trucks that provide environmentally friendly, cost effective solutions to the short, medium and long haul trucking sector. The Energy business unit is primarily developing a hydrogen fueling ecosystem and charging stations to support our BEV and FCEV customers.

28


Our planned hydrogen fueling ecosystem is expected to include hydrogen production and/or hydrogen procurement, hydrogen distribution, and hydrogen storage and dispensing. As part of our hydrogen strategy, on June 22, 2021, we entered into a purchase agreement ("Offtake Agreement") with Wabash Valley Resources LLC (“WVR”), pursuant to which WVR agreed to sell to us, and we agreed to purchase from WVR, hydrogen to be produced from the hydrogen production facility being developed by WVR in West Terre Haute, Indiana (the "Plant"), once completed.
The Offtake Agreement is anticipated to provide us with the ability to purchase clean hydrogen below $1.00/kg which we expect will allow our bundled lease solution including the truck, fuel, and service and maintenance to compete favorably with diesel. The price of under $1.00/kg is a management estimate based on a number of assumptions including but not limited to spot forward rate of electricity (MISO Indiana Hub Average Day Ahead Power Price) and WVR debt service requirements for the anticipated Department of Energy loan. Further, under $1.00/kg represents the anticipated price of hydrogen off-take by us and does not include the cost and capital investment for on-site storage, liquefication, distribution, and dispensing necessary to support our anticipated fueling infrastructure needs. The addition of those costs is expected to increase the cost to us to above $1.00/kg.
The Offtake Agreement has an initial term ending on the later of (i) twelve years after the construction of the Plant or (ii) ten years after the commercial operation date, which is the date the Plant has completed all construction, testing, permitting and start-up as is required to be available, without restrictions, to produce and deliver hydrogen meeting the specifications provided in the Purchase Agreement on a commercial basis.
During 2020, we established a joint venture with Iveco, a subsidiary of CNHI, Nikola Iveco Europe GmbH. Our joint venture with Iveco provides us with the manufacturing infrastructure to build BEV trucks for the North American market in addition to that of our greenfield manufacturing facility in Coolidge, Arizona. The operations of the joint venture commenced during the fourth quarter of 2020. During the second quarter of 2021, the joint venture completed the construction of the manufacturing facility and started trial production for the Nikola Tre BEV on the assembly line in Ulm, Germany
We expect both our capital and operating expenditures will increase significantly in connection with our ongoing activities, as we:
•    construct manufacturing facilities and purchase related equipment;
•    commercialize our heavy-duty trucks and other products;
•    develop hydrogen fueling stations;
•    continue to invest in our technology;
•    increase our investment in marketing and advertising, sales, and distribution infrastructure for our products and services;
•    maintain and improve our operational, financial and management information systems;
•    hire additional personnel;
•    obtain, maintain, expand, and protect our intellectual property portfolio; and
•    operate as a public company.
Comparability of Financial Information
Our results of operations and statements of assets and liabilities may not be comparable between periods as a result of the Business Combination and becoming a public company. As a consequence of the Business Combination, we became a Nasdaq-listed company, which has and will continue to require us to hire additional personnel and implement procedures and processes to address public company regulatory requirements and customary practices. We expect to continue to incur additional annual expenses as a public company for, among other things, directors' and officers' liability insurance, director fees and additional internal and external accounting, legal and administrative resources, including increased audit, compliance, and legal fees.
Key Factors Affecting Operating Results
29


We believe that our performance and future success depend on several factors that present significant opportunities for us but also pose risks and challenges, including those discussed below and in the section titled “Risk Factors.”
Commercial launch of heavy duty trucks and other products
We expect to derive revenue from our Tre BEV trucks beginning in late 2021 and Tre FCEV trucks in the second half 2023. Before commercialization or start-of-production, we must complete modification or construction of required manufacturing facilities, purchase and integrate related systems, components, and software, and achieve validation and testing milestones. Presently, we are experiencing a key supply chain shortage, including but not limited to battery cells, integrated circuits, vehicle control chips, and displays. Certain C-sample chipsets and displays may not arrive at our facilities until early December, which would cause delays in validation and testing for these components until early 2022. This would mean a delay in the availability of saleable Tre BEV trucks until late first quarter of 2022.

We also require substantial additional capital to develop our products and services and fund operations for the foreseeable future. Until we can generate sufficient revenue, we expect to finance our operations through a combination of existing cash on hand, follow-on public offerings, private placements, debt financings, strategic partnerships, and licensing arrangements. The amount and timing of our future funding requirements will depend on many factors, including the pace and results of our development efforts. We expect that any delays in the successful completion of our manufacturing facility, delays in critical parts availability, and in validation and testing will impact our ability to generate revenue.

Customer Demand
While not yet commercially available, we have received significant interest in our trucks from potential customers. Going forward, we expect contractual orders from customers to be an important indicator of our future performance.
Basis of Presentation
Currently, we conduct business through one reportable and one operating segment. See Note 2 in our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2020 for more information.
Components of Results of Operations
Revenues
Prior to 2021, we primarily generated revenue from services related to solar installation projects that were completed in one year or less. Solar installation projects are not a part of our primary operations and were concluded in 2020.
Following the anticipated introduction of our products to the market, we expect the significant majority of our revenue to be derived from our BEV trucks starting in late 2021 and from bundled leases, or other alternative structures, for our FCEV trucks beginning in 2023. We intend for our bundled lease offering to be inclusive of the cost of the truck, hydrogen fuel and regularly scheduled maintenance.
Cost of Revenues
Prior to 2021, our cost of revenue included materials, labor, and other direct costs related to solar installation projects.
Once we have reached commercial production, cost of revenue will include direct parts, material and labor costs, manufacturing overhead, including amortized tooling costs and depreciation of our greenfield manufacturing facility, depreciation of our hydrogen fueling stations, cost of hydrogen production, shipping and logistics costs and reserves for estimated warranty expenses.
Research and Development Expense
Research and development expenses consist primarily of costs incurred for the discovery and development of our vehicles, which include:
•    Fees paid to third parties such as consultants and contractors for outside development;
30


•    Expenses related to materials, supplies and third-party services, including prototype tooling and non-recurring engineering;
•    Personnel related expenses, including salaries, benefits, and stock-based compensation expense, for personnel in our engineering and research functions; and
•    Depreciation for prototyping equipment and R&D facilities.
During the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, our research and development expenses have primarily been incurred in the development of our BEV and FCEV trucks.
As a part of its in-kind investment, Iveco agreed to provide us with $100.0 million in advisory services (based on pre-negotiated hourly rates), including project coordination, drawings, documentation support, engineering support, vehicle integration, and product validation support. During the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, we utilized $14.8 million and $27.7 million, respectively, of advisory services which were recorded as research and development expense. As of June 30, 2021, we have $18.5 million of prepaid in-kind advisory services remaining which is expected to be consumed during the remainder of 2021 and will be recorded as research and development expense until we reach commercial production.
We expect our research and development costs to increase for the foreseeable future as we continue to invest to achieve our technology and product roadmap goals.
Selling, General, and Administrative Expense
Selling, general, and administrative expenses consist of personnel related expenses for our corporate, executive, finance, and other administrative functions, expenses for outside professional services, including legal, audit and accounting services, as well as expenses for facilities, depreciation, amortization, travel, and marketing costs. Personnel related expenses consist of salaries, benefits, and stock-based compensation.
We expect our selling, general, and administrative expenses to increase for the foreseeable future as we scale headcount with the growth of our business, and as a result of operating as a public company.
Interest Income (Expense), net
Interest income consists primarily of interest received or earned on our cash and cash equivalents balances. Interest expense consists of interest on our finance lease liability and term loan.
Loss on Forward Contract Liability
The loss on forward contract liability includes losses from the remeasurement of the Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock forward contract liability. In April 2020, we fulfilled the forward contract liability and, therefore, subsequent to June 30, 2020, there is no impact from the remeasurement of the forward contract liability.
Revaluation of Warrant Liability
The revaluation of warrant liability includes net gains and losses from the remeasurement of the warrant liability. Warrants recorded as liabilities are recorded at their fair value and remeasured at each reporting period.
Other Income (Expense), net
Other income consists primarily of other miscellaneous non-operating items, such as government grants, subsidies, merchandising, foreign currency gains and losses, and unrealized gains and losses on investments.
Income Tax Expense
Our income tax provision consists of an estimate for U.S. federal and state income taxes based on enacted rates, as adjusted for allowable credits, deductions, uncertain tax positions, changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities, and changes in the tax law. Due to cumulative losses, we maintain a valuation allowance against our U.S. and state deferred tax assets.
Equity in Net Loss of Affiliates
Equity in net loss of affiliates consists of our portion of losses from equity method investments.
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Results of Operations
Comparison of Three Months Ended June 30, 2021 to Three Months Ended June 30, 2020
The following table sets forth our historical operating results for the periods indicated:
Three Months Ended June 30,$%
20212020 ChangeChange
(dollar amounts in thousands)
Solar revenues$— $36 $(36)NM
Cost of solar revenues— 30 (30)NM
Gross profit— (6)NM
Operating expenses:
Research and development67,726 42,525 25,201 59.3%
Selling, general, and administrative70,672 44,104 26,568 60.2%
Total operating expenses138,398 86,629 51,769 59.8%
Loss from operations(138,398)(86,623)(51,775)59.8%
Other income (expense):
Interest income (expense), net(92)22 (114)NM
Revaluation of warrant liability(2,511)(29,157)26,646 (91.4)%
Other expense, net(1,102)(23)(1,079)NM
Loss before income taxes and equity in net loss of affiliates(142,103)(115,781)(26,322)22.7%
Income tax expenseNM
Loss before equity in net loss of affiliates(142,105)(115,782)(26,323)22.7%
Equity in net loss of affiliates(1,126)— (1,126)NM
Net loss(143,231)(115,782)(27,449)23.7%
Premium paid on repurchase of redeemable convertible preferred stock— (13,407)13,407 NM
Net loss attributable to common shareholders$(143,231)$(129,189)$(14,042)10.9%
Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders:
Basic$(0.36)$(0.43)$0.07 NM
Diluted$(0.36)$(0.43)$0.07 NM
Weighted-average shares outstanding:
Basic394,577,711 303,785,616 90,792,095 NM
Diluted394,577,711 303,785,616 90,792,095 NM

Solar Revenues and Cost of Solar Revenues

Solar revenues and cost of solar revenues for the three months ended June 30, 2020 were related to solar installation service projects. Solar installation projects were legacy projects that were not related to our primary operations and were concluded in 2020.

Research and Development

Research and development expenses increased by $25.2 million, or 59.3%, from $42.5 million during the three months ended June 30, 2020 to $67.7 million during the three months ended in June 30, 2021. This increase was primarily due to $7.9 million in higher spend on purchased components and outside engineering services as we focus on the development, building, and testing and validation of our Tre BEV truck, as well as continuing the development of our FCEV truck platform. In addition, we incurred higher stock-based compensation expense of $7.3 million, and increased personnel costs of $7.0 million driven by growth in our in-house engineering headcount. The remaining increase was driven by depreciation and occupancy costs related to capital equipment and software dedicated to research and development activities, along with higher professional
32


services costs. We also incurred higher freight costs related to prototype parts, and an increase in travel due to easing of travel restrictions imposed during the prior year related to COVID-19.
Selling, General, and Administrative
Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased by $26.6 million, or 60.2%, from $44.1 million during the three months ended June 30, 2020 to $70.7 million during the three months ended June 30, 2021. The increase was primarily related to an increase in legal expenses of $11.8 million incurred in connection with the Hindenburg article. Additionally, there was an increase in stock-based compensation expense of $7.0 million and an increase of $2.6 million for the non-cash commitment share issuance costs related to the equity line of credit with Tumim Stone Capital LLC ("Tumim"). Further, there was an increase in personnel expenses of $3.5 million driven by growth in headcount, and higher general corporate expenses, including travel, IT equipment, marketing, and depreciation of our headquarters.
Interest Income (Expense), net

Interest income (expense), net was immaterial for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.

Revaluation of Warrant Liability

The revaluation of warrant liability decreased $26.6 million, from a loss of $29.2 million during the three months ended June 30, 2020 to a loss of $2.5 million during the three months ended June 30, 2021, resulting from changes in fair value of our warrant liability.

Other Income (Expense), net
Other expense, net increased by $1.1 million from $0.02 million net expense during the three months ended June 30, 2020 to $1.1 million net expense during the three months ended June 30, 2021. The increase is primarily related to $1 million loss on sale of equipment and losses from foreign currency translation.
Income Tax Expense
Income tax expense was immaterial for the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020. We have accumulated net operating losses at the federal and state level and maintain a full valuation allowance against our net deferred taxes.
Equity in Net Loss of Affiliates

Equity in net loss of affiliates for the quarter ended June 30, 2021, was $1.1 million which relates to the net loss of our joint venture with Iveco. The joint venture commenced operations in the fourth quarter of 2020.
Comparison of Six Months Ended June 30, 2021 to Six Months Ended June 30, 2020

The following table sets forth our historical operating results for the periods indicated:
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Six Months Ended June 30,$%
20212020 ChangeChange
(dollar amounts in thousands)
Solar revenues$— $94 $(94)NM
Cost of solar revenues— 73 (73)NM
Gross profit— 21 (21)NM
Operating expenses:
Research and development122,889 66,602 56,287 84.5%
Selling, general, and administrative136,099 52,039 84,060 161.5%
Total operating expenses258,988 118,641 140,347 118.3%
Loss from operations(258,988)(118,620)(140,368)118.3%
Other income (expense):
Interest income (expense), net(101)84 (185)NM
Loss on forward contract liability— (1,324)1,324 NM
Revaluation of warrant liability(1,560)(29,157)27,597 (94.6)%
Other income (expense), net(883)91 (974)NM
Loss before income taxes and equity in net loss of affiliate(261,532)(148,926)(112,606)75.6%
Income tax expenseNM
Loss before equity in net loss of affiliate(261,535)(148,928)(112,607)75.6%
Equity in net loss of affiliate(1,920)— (1,920)NM
Net loss(263,455)(148,928)(114,527)76.9%
Premium paid on repurchase of redeemable convertible preferred stock— (13,407)13,407 (100.0)%
Net loss attributable to common shareholders$(263,455)$(162,335)$(101,120)62.3%
Net loss per share attributable to common shareholders:
Basic$(0.67)$(0.56)$(0.11)NM
Diluted$(0.67)$(0.56)$(0.11)NM
Weighted-average shares outstanding:
Basic393,390,377 287,822,558 105,567,819 NM
Diluted393,390,377 287,822,558 105,567,819 NM

Solar Revenues and Cost of Solar Revenues

Solar revenues and cost of solar revenues for the six months ended June 30, 2020 were related to solar installation service projects. Solar installation projects were legacy projects that were not related to our primary operations and were concluded in 2020.

Research and Development

Research and development expenses increased by $56.3 million, or 84.5%, from $66.6 million during the six months ended June 30, 2020 to $122.9 million during the six months ended in June 30, 2021. This increase was primarily due to $20.6 million in higher spend on purchased components and outside engineering services as we focus on the development, building, and testing and validation of our Tre BEV truck, as well as continuing the development of our FCEV truck platform. In addition, we incurred higher stock-based compensation expense of $17.3 million, and increased personnel costs of $13.8 million driven by growth in our in-house engineering headcount. The remaining increase was driven by higher depreciation and occupancy costs related to equipment and software dedicated to research and development activities, as well as an increase in travel due to easing of travel restrictions imposed during the prior year related to COVID-19.
Selling, General, and Administrative
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Selling, general, and administrative expenses increased by $84.1 million, or 161.5%, from $52.0 million during the six months ended June 30, 2020 to $136.1 million during the six months ended June 30, 2021. The increase was primarily related to higher stock-based compensation expense of $46.1 million and higher legal expenses of $26.3 million primarily related to regulatory and legal matters incurred in connection with the Hindenburg article. Further, there was an increase of $6.6 million in personnel expenses driven by growth in headcount and an increase of $2.6 million related to the non-cash commitment share issuance costs related to the equity line of credit with Tumim.
Interest Income (Expense), net

Interest income (expense), net was immaterial for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020.

Loss on Forward Contract Liability

Loss on the forward contract liability represents loss recognized from a $1.3 million change in fair value of the forward contract liability as of June 30, 2020. The forward contract was settled in April 2020.

Revaluation of Warrant Liability

The revaluation of warrant liability decreased $27.6 million, from a loss of $29.2 million during the six months ended June 30, 2020 to a loss of $1.6 million during the six months ended June 30, 2021 resulting from changes in fair value of our warrant liability.

Other Income (Expense), net
Other expense increased by $1.0 million from $0.1 million net income during the six months ended June 30, 2020 to $0.9 million net expense during the six months ended June 30, 2021. The increase is primarily related to $1.0 million loss on sale of equipment and unrealized losses from foreign currency translation.
Income Tax Expense
Income tax expense was immaterial for the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020. We have accumulated net operating losses at the federal and state level and maintain a full valuation allowance against our net deferred taxes.
Equity in Net Loss of Affiliates

Equity in net loss of affiliates for the six months ended June 30, 2021, was a $1.9 million loss which relates to the net loss of our joint venture with Iveco. The joint venture commenced operations in the fourth quarter of 2020.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
In addition to our results determined in accordance with GAAP, we believe the following non-GAAP measures are useful in evaluating operational performance. We use the following non-GAAP financial information to evaluate ongoing operations and for internal planning and forecasting purposes. We believe that non-GAAP financial information, when taken collectively, may be helpful to investors in assessing operating performance.
EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA
“EBITDA” is defined as net loss before interest income or expense, income tax expense or benefit, and depreciation and amortization. “Adjusted EBITDA” is defined as EBITDA adjusted for stock-based compensation and other items determined by management. Adjusted EBITDA is intended as a supplemental measure of our performance that is neither required by, nor presented in accordance with, GAAP. We believe that the use of EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA provides an additional tool for investors to use in evaluating ongoing operating results and trends and in comparing our financial measures with those of comparable companies, which may present similar non-GAAP financial measures to investors. However, you should be aware that when evaluating EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA we may incur future expenses similar to those excluded when calculating these measures. In addition, our presentation of these measures should not be construed as an inference that our future results will be unaffected by unusual or non-recurring items. Our computation of Adjusted EBITDA may not be
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comparable to other similarly titled measures computed by other companies, because all companies may not calculate Adjusted EBITDA in the same fashion.
Because of these limitations, EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for performance measures calculated in accordance with GAAP. We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA on a supplemental basis. You should review the reconciliation of net loss to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA below and not rely on any single financial measure to evaluate our business.
The following table reconciles net loss to EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA for the three and six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020:
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
(in thousands)
Net loss$(143,231)$(115,782)$(263,455)$(148,928)
Interest (income) expense, net92 (22)101 (84)
Income tax expense
Depreciation and amortization1,905 1,518 3,710 2,926 
EBITDA(141,232)(114,285)(259,641)(146,084)
Stock-based compensation52,670 38,227 102,936 39,540 
Loss on forward contract liability— — — 1,324 
Revaluation of warrant liability2,511 29,157 1,560 29,157 
Equity in net loss of affiliates1,126 — 1,920 — 
Regulatory and legal matters (1)
11,019 — 25,885 — 
Adjusted EBITDA$(73,906)$(46,901)$(127,340)$(76,063)

(1) Regulatory and legal matters include legal, advisory, and other professional service fees incurred in connection with the Hindenburg article from September 2020, and investigations and litigation related thereto.

Non-GAAP Net Loss and Non-GAAP Net Loss Per Share, Basic and Diluted

Non-GAAP net loss and Non-GAAP net loss per share, basic and diluted are presented as supplemental measures of our performance. Non-GAAP net loss is defined as net loss attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted adjusted for stock compensation expense and other items determined by management. Non-GAAP net loss per share, basic and diluted, is defined as Non-GAAP net loss divided by weighted average shares outstanding, basic and diluted.


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Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2021202020212020
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
Net loss attributable to common stockholders$(143,231)$(129,189)$(263,455)$(162,335)
Stock-based compensation52,670 38,227 102,936 39,540 
Premium paid on repurchase of redeemable convertible preferred stock— 13,407 — 13,407 
Revaluation of warrant liability2,511 29,157 1,560 29,157 
Regulatory and legal matters(1)
11,019 — 25,885 — 
Non-GAAP net loss$(77,031)$(48,398)$(133,074)$(80,231)
Non-GAAP net loss per share:
Basic$(0.20)$(0.16)$(0.34)$(0.28)
Diluted$(0.20)$(0.16)$(0.34)$(0.28)
Weighted average shares outstanding:
Basic394,577,711 303,785,616 393,390,377 287,822,558 
Diluted394,577,711 303,785,616 393,390,377 287,822,558 

(1) Regulatory and legal matters include legal, advisory, and other professional service fees incurred in connection with the Hindenburg article from September 2020, and investigations and litigation related thereto.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
Since inception, we financed our operations primarily from the sales of redeemable convertible preferred stock and common stock, the Business Combination, and redemption of warrants. As of June 30, 2021, our principal sources of liquidity were our cash and cash equivalents in the amount of $632.7 million, which are primarily invested in money market funds.
Short-Term Liquidity Requirements
As of the date of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, we have yet to generate revenue from our core business operations. As of June 30, 2021, our current assets were $663.3 million consisting primarily of cash and cash equivalents of $632.7 million, and our current liabilities were $84.8 million primarily comprised of accrued expenses and accounts payables. During the second quarter of 2021, we entered into a Purchase Agreement with Tumim allowing us to issue shares of our common stock to Tumim for proceeds of up to $300 million. As of June 30, 2021 we did not issue any shares of common stock to Tumim under the terms of the Purchase Agreement, other than the 155,703 commitment shares issued to Tumim as consideration for its irrevocable commitment to purchase shares of our common stock under the Purchase Agreement. Subsequent to June 30, 2021, we issued 1,004,120 shares of common stock to Tumim for gross proceeds of $14.8 million.

We believe our cash and cash equivalents balance will be sufficient to continue to execute our business strategy over the next twelve month period by (i) completing the development and industrialization of the BEV truck, (ii) completing phase one construction of our greenfield manufacturing facility, (iii) completing the construction of a pilot commercial hydrogen station and (iv) hiring of personnel.

However, actual results could vary materially and negatively as a result of a number of factors, including:
the costs of our greenfield manufacturing facility construction and equipment;
the timing and the costs involved in bringing our vehicles to market, mainly the BEV truck;
our ability to manage the costs of manufacturing the BEV trucks;
the scope, progress, results, costs, timing and outcomes of our research and development for our FCEV trucks;
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the costs of maintaining, expanding and protecting our intellectual property portfolio, including potential litigation costs and liabilities;
revenue received from sales of our BEV trucks;
the costs of additional general and administrative personnel, including accounting and finance, legal and human resources, as well as costs related to litigation, investigations, or settlements;
our ability to collect revenue; and
other risks discussed in the section entitled "Risk Factors."
Long-Term Liquidity Requirements
Until we can generate sufficient revenue from truck sales and leases to cover operating expenses, working capital and capital expenditures, we expect to fund cash needs through a combination of equity and debt financing, including lease securitization, strategic collaborations, and licensing arrangements. If we raise funds by issuing equity securities, dilution to stockholders may result. Any equity securities issued may also provide for rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. If we raise funds by issuing debt securities, these debt securities would have rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. The terms of debt securities or borrowings could impose significant restrictions on our operations. If we raise funds through collaborations and licensing arrangements, we might be required to relinquish significant rights to our technologies or products, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us. The credit market and financial services industry have in the past, and may in the future, experience periods of upheaval that could impact the availability and cost of equity and debt financing.

While we intend to raise additional capital in the future, if adequate funds are not available, we will need to curb our expansion plans or limit our research and development activities, which would have a material adverse impact on our business prospects and results of operations.
The following table provides a summary of cash flow data (in thousands):
Six Months Ended June 30,
20212020
(in thousands)
Net cash used in operating activities$(125,974)$(45,561)
Net cash used in investing activities(89,587)(6,303)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities(1,023)669,314 

Cash Flows from Operating Activities
Our cash flows from operating activities are significantly affected by the growth of our business primarily related to research and development activities. Our operating cash flows are also affected by our working capital needs to support growth in personnel related expenditures and fluctuations in accounts payable and other current assets and liabilities.
Net cash used in operating activities was $126.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021. The most significant component of our cash used during this period was net loss of $263.5 million, which included non-cash expenses of $102.9 million related to stock-based compensation, $27.7 million expense for in-kind services, other non-cash charges of $10.8 million and net cash outflows of $4.0 million from changes in operating assets and liabilities primarily driven by increases in long-term deposits and prepaid expenses and other current assets, and inventory, partially offset by an increase in accounts payable and accrued expenses.
Net cash used in operating activities was $45.6 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020. The largest component of our cash used during this period was a net loss of $148.9 million, which included non-cash charges of $39.5 million related to stock-based compensation, $29.2 million loss for the revaluation of warrant liability, $17.2 million expense for in-kind services,
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a loss of $1.3 million related to the change in fair value of the forward contract liability, and $2.9 million related to depreciation and amortization expense, and net cash inflows of $13.2 million from changes in operating assets and liabilities primarily driven by a decrease in accounts receivable, net and prepaid expenses and other current assets.
Cash Flows from Investing Activities
We continue to experience negative cash flows from investing activities as we expand our business and build out infrastructure. Cash flows from investing activities primarily relate to capital expenditures to support our growth. Net cash used in investing activities is expected to continue to increase substantially as we build out and tool our manufacturing facility in Coolidge, Arizona, finance operations of our joint venture in Ulm, Germany, and develop the network of hydrogen fueling stations. As of June 30, 2021, we anticipate our capital expenditures for the remainder of fiscal year 2021 to be between $145 million to $185 million, of which a significant portion is related to the construction of our truck manufacturing facility and purchases of related equipment in Coolidge, Arizona.
Net cash used in investing activities was $89.6 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, which was primarily due to $64.8 million in costs of construction for our Coolidge manufacturing facility and purchases of and deposits for capital equipment and supplier tooling and our $25.0 million cash investment in WVR.
Net cash used in investing activities was $6.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020, which was due to purchases and deposits on capital equipment related to the construction of our headquarters.
Cash Flows from Financing Activities
Through June 30, 2021, we have financed our operations through proceeds from sales of redeemable convertible preferred stock and common stock, the Business Combination, and redemption of warrants.
Net cash used in financing activities was $1.0 million for the six months ended June 30, 2021, which was primarily due to a $4.1 million term note repayment, partially offset by proceeds from the exercises of stock options of $3.8 million
Net cash provided by financing activities was $669.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020, which was primarily due to net proceeds of $616.7 million from the Business Combination and the PIPE, proceeds from the issuance of Series D redeemable convertible preferred stock of $50.3 million, net of issuance costs, proceeds from the exercises of stock options of $1.9 million and proceeds from tenant allowances for the construction of our headquarters of $0.9 million, offset by payments on our financing lease of $0.5 million.

Contractual Obligations and Commitments
For the three and six months ended June 30, 2021, there have been no material changes to our significant contractual obligations as previously disclosed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Off Balance Sheet Arrangements
Since the date of our incorporation, we have not engaged in any off balance sheet arrangements, as defined in the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC").
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. These principles require us to make certain estimates and assumptions. These estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, as of the balance sheet date, as well as reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Our most significant estimates and judgments involve valuation of our stock-based compensation, including the fair value of common stock, the valuation of warrant liabilities, the valuation of the redeemable convertible preferred stock tranche liability, estimates related to our lease assumptions, and contingent liabilities, including litigation reserves. Management bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions believed to be reasonable, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
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There have been no substantial changes to these estimates, or the policies related to them during the three and six months ended June 30, 2021. For a full discussion of these estimates and policies, see "Critical Accounting Estimates" in Item 7 of our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2020.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
See Note 2 to our Unaudited Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for more information about recent accounting pronouncements, the timing of their adoption, and our assessment, to the extent we have made one, of their potential impact on our financial condition and our results of operations.
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ITEM 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK

We are exposed to a variety of market and other risks, including the effects of changes in interest rates, inflation, and foreign currency exchange rates, as well as risks to the availability of funding sources, hazard events, and specific asset risks.

Interest Rate Risk

The market risk inherent in our financial instruments and our financial position represents the potential loss arising from adverse changes in interest rates. As of June 30, 2021 and December 31, 2020, we had cash and cash equivalents of $632.7 million and $840.9 million, respectively, consisting of interest-bearing money market accounts for which the fair market value would be affected by changes in the general level of U.S. interest rates. However, due to the short-term maturities and the low-risk profile of our investments, an immediate 10% change in interest rates would not have a material effect on the fair market value of our cash and cash equivalents.

Foreign Currency Risk

For the three months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, we recorded a $0.2 million loss and a $0.1 million gain, respectively, for foreign currency translation. For the six months ended June 30, 2021 and 2020, we recorded a $0.1 million loss and a $0.1 million gain, respectively, for foreign currency translation.

ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES

Evaluation of Disclosure Controls and Procedures

We maintain a system of disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the "Exchange Act")) designed to ensure that the information required to be disclosed by us in the reports that we file or submit under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the rules and forms of the SEC, and is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our Chief Executive Officer (our principal executive officer) and Chief Financial Officer (our principal financial officer), as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure.

Our management, with the participation of our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer, has evaluated the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures under the Exchange Act as of June 30, 2021, the end of the period covered by this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Based on such evaluation, our Chief Executive Officer and our Chief Financial Officer have concluded that, as of such date, our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level.

Description and Remediation of Material Weakness as of March 31, 2021

On April 12, 2021, the staff of the SEC issued an SEC Staff Statement (“the SEC Staff Statement”) in which they clarified their interpretations of certain generally accepted accounting principles related to warrants issued by Special Purpose Acquisition Companies (“SPACs”). Prior to the SEC Staff Statement, we believed that our warrant accounting was consistent with generally accepted accounting principles. Our belief was supported by the fact that most other SPACs and parties who had merged with SPACs similarly interpreted the warrant accounting principles at issue. However, based on the clarifications expressed in the SEC Staff Statement, it resulted in a restatement as discussed in our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2020 and a previously reported material weakness in our disclosure controls and procedures.

In connection with correcting our accounting for the private warrants assumed by us as part of the Business Combination, we have implemented additional review procedures, additional training and enhancements to the accounting policy related to the accounting for equity and liability instruments (including those with warrants) to determine proper accounting in accordance with GAAP (e.g., determine whether liability or equity classification and measurement is appropriate).

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After completion of the items noted above, our management believes the previously identified material weakness has been remediated, subject to testing of the operating effectiveness of the control throughout the year.

Changes in Internal Control over Financial Reporting

Other than the material weakness remediation activities described above, there were no changes in our internal control over financial reporting, as identified in connection with the evaluation required by Rule 13a-15(d) and Rule 15d-15(d) of the Exchange Act, that occurred during the three months ended June 30, 2021 that have materially affected, or are reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.

PART II - OTHER INFORMATION

Item 1. Legal Proceedings

For a description of our material pending legal proceedings, see Note 11, Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and to Note 14 to our audited consolidated financial statements in our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2020.

Item 1A. Risk Factors

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry

We are an early stage company with a history of losses, and expect to incur significant expenses and continuing losses for the foreseeable future.

We incurred net losses of $370.9 million and $143.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2020 and for the six months ended June 30, 2021, respectively, and have incurred net losses of approximately $823.6 million from Legacy Nikola's inception through June 30, 2021. We believe that we will continue to incur operating and net losses each quarter until at least the time we begin significant deliveries of our trucks, which is not expected to begin at least until 2022 for our battery electric vehicle, or BEV, truck and the second half of 2023 and 2024 for our Tre hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle, or FCEV, truck and Two FCEV truck, respectively, and may occur later. Even if we are able to successfully develop and sell or lease our trucks, there can be no assurance that they will be commercially successful. Our potential profitability is dependent upon the successful development and successful commercial introduction and acceptance of our trucks and our hydrogen station platform, which may not occur.

We expect the rate at which we will incur losses to be significantly high in future periods as we:

design, develop and manufacture our trucks;
construct and equip our manufacturing plant to produce our trucks in Arizona;
modify and equip the Iveco manufacturing plant in Germany to produce our trucks in Europe;
build up inventories of parts and components for our trucks;
manufacture an available inventory of our trucks;
develop and deploy our hydrogen fueling stations;
expand our design, development, maintenance and repair capabilities;
increase our sales and marketing activities and develop our distribution infrastructure; and
increase our general and administrative functions to support our growing operations.

Because we will incur the costs and expenses from these efforts before we receive any incremental revenue with respect thereto, our losses in future periods will be significant. In addition, we may find that these efforts are more expensive than we currently anticipate or that these efforts may not result in revenue, which would further increase our losses.

We may be unable to adequately control the costs associated with our operations.

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We will require significant capital to develop and grow our business, including developing and manufacturing our trucks, building our manufacturing plant and building our brand. We expect to incur significant expenses which will impact our profitability, including research and development expenses, raw material procurement costs, leases, sales and distribution expenses as we build our brand and market our trucks and bundled leasing model, and general and administrative expenses as we scale our operations. In addition, we may incur significant costs in connection with our services, including building our hydrogen fueling stations and honoring our maintenance commitments under our bundled lease package. Our ability to become profitable in the future will not only depend on our ability to successfully market our vehicles and other products and services, but also to control our costs. If we are unable to cost efficiently design, manufacture, market, sell, distribute and service our trucks and services, our margins, profitability and prospects would be materially and adversely affected.

Our business model has yet to be tested and any failure to commercialize our strategic plans would have an adverse effect on our operating results and business, harm our reputation and could result in substantial liabilities that exceed our resources.

Investors should be aware of the difficulties normally encountered by a new enterprise, many of which are beyond our control, including substantial risks and expenses in the course of establishing or entering new markets, organizing operations and undertaking marketing activities. The likelihood of our success must be considered in light of these risks, expenses, complications, delays and the competitive environment in which we operate. There is, therefore, nothing at this time upon which to base an assumption that our business plan will prove successful, and we may not be able to generate significant revenue, raise additional capital or operate profitably. We will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by early commercial stage companies, including scaling up our infrastructure and headcount, and may encounter unforeseen expenses, difficulties or delays in connection with our growth. In addition, as a result of the capital-intensive nature of our business, we can be expected to continue to sustain substantial operating expenses without generating sufficient revenue to cover expenditures. Any investment in our company is therefore highly speculative and could result in the loss of your entire investment.

Our limited operating history makes evaluating our business and future prospects difficult and may increase the risk of your investment.

You must consider the risks and difficulties we face as an early stage company with a limited operating history. If we do not successfully address these risks, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition will be materially and adversely harmed. We have a very limited operating history on which investors can base an evaluation of our business, operating results and prospects. We intend to derive substantially all of our revenue from the sale and lease of our vehicle platforms, which are still in the early stages of development. Our revenue will also depend on the sale of hydrogen fuel at our planned hydrogen fueling stations which we do not expect to be operational until 2023 or later. There are no assurances that we will be able to secure future business with the major trucking companies or with independent truck drivers.

It is difficult to predict our future revenue and appropriately budget for our expenses, and we have limited insight into trends that may emerge and affect our business. In the event that actual results differ from our estimates or we adjust our estimates in future periods, our operating results and financial position could be materially affected.

We will need to raise additional funds and these funds may not be available to us when we need them. If we cannot raise additional funds when we need them, our operations and prospects could be negatively affected.

The design, manufacture, lease, sale and servicing of vehicles and related hydrogen fueling stations is capital-intensive. We expect that we will have sufficient capital to fund our planned operations for the next 12 months. We will need to raise additional capital to scale our manufacturing and roll out our hydrogen fueling stations. We may raise additional funds through the issuance of equity, equity related or debt securities, strategic partnerships, licensing arrangements, or through obtaining credit from government or financial institutions. This capital will be necessary to fund our ongoing operations, continue research, development and design efforts, improve infrastructure, introduce new vehicles and build hydrogen fueling stations. We cannot be certain that additional funds will be available to us on favorable terms when required, or at all. If we raise funds by issuing equity securities, dilution to our stockholders would result. Any equity securities issued also may provide for rights, preferences or privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. The terms of debt securities issued or borrowings, if available, could impose significant restrictions on our operations. If we raise funds through collaborations and licensing
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arrangements, we might be required to relinquish significant rights to our technologies or products, or grant licenses on terms that are not favorable to us.

If we cannot raise additional funds when we need them, our financial condition, results of operations, business and prospects could be materially adversely affected. In addition, sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market or the perception that these sales might occur, including pursuant our Purchase Agreement with Tumim, could depress the market price of our common stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities.

If we fail to manage our future growth effectively, we may not be able to market and sell our vehicles successfully.

Any failure to manage our growth effectively could materially and adversely affect our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition. We intend to expand our operations significantly. Our future expansion will include:

training new personnel;
forecasting production and revenue;
controlling expenses and investments in anticipation of expanded operations;
establishing or expanding design, manufacturing, sales and service facilities; and
implementing and enhancing administrative infrastructure, systems and processes.

We intend to continue to hire a significant number of additional personnel, including design and manufacturing personnel and service technicians for our trucks. Because our trucks are based on a different technology platform than traditional internal combustion engines, individuals with sufficient training in alternative fuel and electric vehicles may not be available to hire, and as a result, we will need to expend significant time and expense training the employees we do hire.

Our bundled lease model may present unique problems that may have an adverse effect on our operating results and business and harm our reputation.

Our bundled lease model, which is intended to provide customers with the FCEV truck, hydrogen fuel and maintenance for a fixed price per mile, is reliant on our ability to achieve a minimum hydrogen fuel efficiency in our FCEV trucks. If we are unable to achieve or maintain this fuel efficiency, we may be forced to provide our bundled lease customers with fuel at prices below-cost or risk damaging our relationships with our customers. Any such scenario would put our bundled lease model in jeopardy and may have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.

We may face legal challenges in one or more states attempting to sell directly to customers which could materially adversely affect our costs.

Our business plan includes the direct sale of vehicles to business customers, and potentially, to individual customers. Most, if not all, states require a license to sell vehicles within the state. Many states prohibit manufacturers from directly selling vehicles to customers. In other states, manufacturers must operate a physical dealership within the state to deliver vehicles to customers. As a result, we may not be able to sell directly to customers in each state in the United States.

We are currently not registered as a dealer in any state. In many states, it is unclear if, as a manufacturer, we will be able to obtain permission to sell and deliver vehicles directly to customers. For customers residing in states in which we will not be allowed to sell or deliver vehicles, we may have to arrange alternate methods of delivery of vehicles. This could include delivering vehicles to adjacent or nearby states in which we are allowed to directly sell and ship vehicles, and arranging for the customer to transport the vehicles to their home states. These workarounds could add significant complexity and, as a result, costs, to our business.

We face risks and uncertainties related to litigation, regulatory actions and government investigations and inquiries.

We are subject to, and may become a party to, a variety of litigation, other claims, suits, regulatory actions and government investigations and inquiries. For example, in September 2020, Nikola and our officers and employees received subpoenas from the SEC as part of a fact-finding inquiry related to aspects of our business as well as certain matters described
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in an article issued on September 10, 2020 by Hindenburg Research LLC, or the Hindenburg article. The SEC issued subpoenas to our directors on September 30, 2020. In addition, Nikola and Trevor R. Milton also received grand jury subpoenas from the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Southern District of New York and the N.Y. County District Attorney’s Office in September 2020. On July 29, 2021, the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York (“SDNY”) announced the unsealing of a criminal indictment charging Trevor Milton with two counts of securities fraud and one count of wire fraud. That same day, the Securities and Exchange Commission announced charges against Mr. Milton for alleged violations of federal securities laws.

We have cooperated, and will continue to cooperate, with these and any other regulatory or governmental requests. We have incurred significant expenses as a result of the regulatory and legal matters relating to the Hindenburg article. The total cost associated with these matters will depend on many factors, including the duration of these matters and any related finding.

Additionally, six putative class action lawsuits were filed against us and certain of our current and former officers and directors, asserting violations of federal securities laws under Section 10(b) and Section 20(a) of the Exchange Act, and, in one case, violations of the Unfair Competition Law under California law, alleging that Nikola and certain of our officers and directors made false and/or misleading statements in press releases and public filings regarding our business plan and prospects. These lawsuits have been consolidated. Separately, three purported Nikola stockholder derivative actions were filed in the United States District Court, against certain of our current and former directors, alleging breaches of fiduciary duties, violations of Section 14(a) of the Exchange Act, and gross mismanagement, among other claims. We are unable to estimate the potential loss or range of loss, if any, associated with these lawsuits.

In addition, from time to time, we may also be involved in legal proceedings and investigations arising in the ordinary course of business, including those relating to employment matters, relationships with collaboration partners, intellectual property disputes, and other business matters. Any such claims or investigations may be time-consuming, costly, divert management resources, or otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business or result of operations.

The results of litigation and other legal proceedings, including the other claims described under Note 11, Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and in Note 14 in our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2020, are inherently uncertain and adverse judgments or settlements in some or all of these legal disputes may result in materially adverse monetary damages or injunctive relief against us. Any claims or litigation, even if fully indemnified or insured, could damage our reputation and make it more difficult to compete effectively or obtain adequate insurance in the future. The litigation and other legal proceedings described under Note 11, Commitments and Contingencies, to the consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and to Note 14 in our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2020 are subject to future developments and management’s view of these matters may change in the future.

Our success will depend on our ability to economically manufacture our trucks at scale and build our hydrogen fueling stations to meet our customers’ business needs, and our ability to develop and manufacture trucks of sufficient quality and appeal to customers on schedule and at scale is unproven.

Our future business depends in large part on our ability to execute our plans to develop, manufacture, market and sell our BEV and FCEV trucks and to deploy the associated hydrogen fueling stations for our FCEV trucks at sufficient capacity to meet the transportation demands of our business customers. We plan to initially commence manufacturing our trucks in Europe through our joint venture with CNH Industrial N.V., or CNHI and Iveco S.p.A., or Iveco, which commenced operations in the fourth quarter of 2020 and started trial production in the second quarter of 2021, and in the future at our manufacturing plant in Arizona.

Our continued development of our truck platforms is and will be subject to risks, including with respect to:

our ability to secure necessary funding;
the equipment we plan to use being able to accurately manufacture the vehicles within specified design tolerances;
long-and short-term durability of our hydrogen fuel cell and electric drivetrain technology related components in the day-to-day wear and tear of the commercial trucking environment;
compliance with environmental, workplace safety and similar regulations;
securing necessary components on acceptable terms and in a timely manner;
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delays in delivery of final component designs to our suppliers;
our ability to attract, recruit, hire and train skilled employees;
quality controls, particularly as we plan to commence manufacturing in-house;
delays or disruptions in our supply chain; and
other delays and cost overruns.

We have no experience to date in high volume manufacturing of our trucks. We do not know whether we will be able to develop efficient, automated, low-cost manufacturing capabilities and processes, and reliable sources of component supply, that will enable us to meet the quality, price, engineering, design and production standards, as well as the production volumes, required to successfully mass market our trucks. Even if we are successful in developing our high volume manufacturing capability and processes and reliably source our component supply, we do not know whether we will be able to do so in a manner that avoids significant delays and cost overruns, including as a result of factors beyond our control such as problems with suppliers and vendors, or in time to meet our vehicle commercialization schedules or to satisfy the requirements of customers. Any failure to develop such manufacturing processes and capabilities within our projected costs and timelines could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition.

We may experience significant delays in the design, manufacture, launch and financing of our trucks, including in the build out of our manufacturing plant, which could harm our business and prospects.

Any delay in the financing, design, manufacture and launch of our trucks, including in the build out of our manufacturing plant in Arizona, could materially damage our brand, business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. Vehicle manufacturers often experience delays in the design, manufacture and commercial release of new products. To the extent we delay the launch of our trucks, our growth prospects could be adversely affected as we may fail to grow our market share. Furthermore, we rely on third party suppliers for the provision and development of many of the key components and materials used in our vehicles. To the extent our suppliers experience any delays in providing us with or developing necessary components, we could experience delays in delivering on our timelines.

Increases in costs, disruption of supply or shortage of raw materials, particularly lithium-ion battery cells, could harm our business.

We may experience increases in the cost or a sustained interruption in the supply or shortage of raw materials, including battery cells, semiconductors, and integrated circuits which primarily impact our infotainment system and controllers. Any such increase or supply interruption could materially negatively impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results. Currently, we are experiencing a supply chain shortage, including with respect to battery cells, integrated circuits, vehicle control chips, and displays, which may cause delays in validation and testing for these components, which would in turn create a delay in the delivery of saleable Nikola Tre Bev trucks.

We use various raw materials including aluminum, steel, carbon fiber, non-ferrous metals (such as copper), and cobalt. The prices for these raw materials fluctuate depending on market conditions and global demand and could adversely affect our business and operating results. For instance, we are exposed to multiple risks relating to price fluctuations for lithium-ion cells. These risks include:

the inability or unwillingness of current battery manufacturers to build or operate battery cell manufacturing plants to supply the numbers of lithium-ion cells required to support the growth of the electric vehicle industry as demand for such cells increases;
disruption in the supply of cells due to quality issues or recalls by the battery cell manufacturers; and
an increase in the cost of raw materials, such as cobalt, used in lithium-ion cells.

Any disruption in the supply of battery cells, semiconductors, or integrated circuits could temporarily disrupt production of the BEV truck until a different supplier is fully qualified. Moreover, battery cell manufacturers may refuse to supply electric vehicle manufacturers if they determine that the vehicles are not sufficiently safe. Furthermore, fluctuations or shortages in petroleum and other economic conditions may cause us to experience significant increases in freight charges and raw material costs. Substantial increases in the prices for our raw materials would increase our operating costs and could reduce
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our margins if the increased costs cannot be recouped through increased electric vehicle prices. There can be no assurance that we will be able to recoup increasing costs of raw materials by increasing vehicle prices.

We will rely on complex machinery for our operations and production involves a significant degree of risk and uncertainty in terms of operational performance and costs.

We will rely heavily on complex machinery for our operations and our production will involve a significant degree of uncertainty and risk in terms of operational performance and costs. Our truck manufacturing plant will consist of large-scale machinery combining many components. The manufacturing plant components are likely to suffer unexpected malfunctions from time to time and will depend on repairs and spare parts to resume operations, which may not be available when needed. Unexpected malfunctions of the manufacturing plant components may significantly affect the intended operational efficiency. Operational performance and costs can be difficult to predict and are often influenced by factors outside of our control, such as, but not limited to, scarcity of natural resources, environmental hazards and remediation, costs associated with decommissioning of machines, labor disputes and strikes, difficulty or delays in obtaining governmental permits, damages or defects in electronic systems, industrial accidents, fire, seismic activity and natural disasters. Should operational risks materialize, it may result in the personal injury to or death of workers, the loss of production equipment, damage to manufacturing facilities, monetary losses, delays and unanticipated fluctuations in production, environmental damage, administrative fines, increased insurance costs and potential legal liabilities, all which could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, cash flows, financial condition or prospects.

Once completed, if our manufacturing plant in Arizona becomes inoperable, we will be unable to produce our trucks and our business will be harmed.

We expect to begin assembly of our trucks at our manufacturing plant in Arizona after completion of Phase 1 of the plant by the end of 2021, at the earliest. We expect to produce all of our trucks at our manufacturing plant in Arizona after completion of the second phase of the plant in 2022, at the earliest. Our plant and the equipment we use to manufacture our trucks would be costly to replace and could require substantial lead time to replace and qualify for use. Our plant may be harmed or rendered inoperable by natural or man-made disasters, including earthquakes, flooding, fire and power outages, or by health epidemics, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, which may render it difficult or impossible for us to manufacture our trucks for some period of time. The inability to produce our trucks or the backlog that could develop if our manufacturing plant is inoperable for even a short period of time may result in the loss of customers or harm our reputation. Although we maintain insurance for damage to our property and the disruption of our business, this insurance may not be sufficient to cover all of our potential losses and may not continue to be available to us on acceptable terms, if at all.

Our plan to build a network of hydrogen fueling stations will require significant cash investments and management resources and may not meet our expectations with respect to additional sales of our electric vehicles. In addition, we may not be able to open stations in certain states.

Our plan to build a network of hydrogen fueling stations in the United States will require significant cash investments and management resources and may not meet our expectations with respect to additional sales of our FCEV trucks. This planned construction of hydrogen stations is essential to persuading customers to pay a higher premium for our trucks.

While we have constructed a demo station, we have very limited experience in the actual provision of our refueling solutions to users, and providing these services is subject to challenges, which include the logistics of rolling out our network of refueling stations and teams in appropriate areas, inadequate capacity or over capacity in certain areas, security risks, risk of damage to vehicles during charging or refueling and the potential for lack of customer acceptance of our services. We will need to ensure compliance with any regulatory requirements applicable in jurisdictions where our fueling stations will be located, including obtaining any required permits and land use rights, which could take considerable time and expense and is subject to the risk that government support in certain areas may be discontinued or subject to conditions that we may be unable to meet in a cost-efficient manner. In addition, given our lack of experience building and operating fueling stations, there could be unanticipated challenges which may hinder our ability to provide our bundled lease to customers or make the provision of our bundled leases costlier than anticipated. If we are unable to build, or experience delays in building, our network of hydrogen fueling stations, we may be unable to meet our fueling commitments under our bundled lease arrangements with customers and
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experience decreased sales or leases of our vehicles, which may negatively impact our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

We may not be able to produce or source the hydrogen needed to establish our planned hydrogen fueling stations.

As a key component of our business model, we intend to establish a series of hydrogen fueling stations, and we intend to include the cost of hydrogen in the purchase price of our trucks. Where electricity can be procured in a cost-effective manner, we expect that hydrogen fuel will be produced on-site, via electrolysis. In other cases, we expect that hydrogen fuel will be produced off-site and delivered to fueling stations under a supply "hub and spoke" structure. On June 22, 2021, we entered into a Hydrogen Sale and Purchase Agreement, or the Hydrogen Purchase Agreement, with WVR, to purchase hydrogen produced at the hydrogen production facility, or the Plant, being developed by WVR in West Terre Haute, Indiana. WVR has yet to break ground on the Plant. Consequently, there is no guarantee WVR will be able to meet its development timeline with regard to the facility or successfully produce hydrogen at scale. To the extent we are unable to produce or obtain the hydrogen, or to obtain hydrogen at favorable prices, we may be unable to establish these fueling stations and severely limit the usefulness of our trucks, or, if we are still able to establish these stations, we may be forced to sell hydrogen at a loss in order to maintain our commitments. We believe that this hydrogen incentive will be a significant driver for purchases of our trucks, and therefore, the failure to establish and roll out these hydrogen fueling stations in accordance with our expectations would materially adversely affect our business.

Our inability to cost-effectively source the energy requirements to conduct electrolysis at our fueling stations may impact the profitability of our bundled leases by making our hydrogen uneconomical compared to other vehicle fuel sources.

Our ability to economically produce hydrogen for our FCEV trucks requires us to secure a reliable source of electricity for each of our on-site gaseous stations and large scale production hubs at a price per kilowatt hour that is similar to wholesale rates in the geographic areas we target. During our initial hydrogen station roll-out, we intend to source power based on the most economical power mix available at each hydrogen production site, including power from the grid that is sourced from non-renewable sources. An increase in the price of energy used to generate hydrogen through electrolysis would likely result in a higher cost of fuel for our FCEV trucks as well as increase the cost of distribution, freight and delivery. We may not be able to offset these cost increases or pass such cost increases onto customers in the form of price increases, because of our bundled lease model for FCEV trucks, which could have an adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.

Reservations for our trucks are cancellable.

Reservations for our Nikola FCEV trucks are subject to cancellation by the customer until the customer enters into a lease agreement or, in the case of Anheuser-Busch LLC, or AB, to the extent our trucks do not meet the vehicle specifications and delivery timelines specified in the contract with AB, as discussed further below. Because all of our reservations are cancellable, it is possible that a significant number of customers who submitted reservations for our trucks may cancel those reservations. In addition, our non-binding FCEV reservations include reservations from individuals or small fleets with orders of 100 trucks or less, which collectively represent approximately 47% of our total FCEV reservations as of December 31, 2020. These individuals or small fleets may not receive FCEV trucks until the density of the hydrogen station network is sufficient for their refueling needs, which may not occur until approximately 2030 or later.

Given the anticipated lead times between customer reservation and delivery of our trucks, there is a heightened risk that customers that have made reservations may not ultimately take delivery of vehicles due to potential changes in customer preferences, competitive developments and other factors. As a result, no assurance can be made that reservations will not be cancelled, or that reservations will ultimately result in the purchase or lease of a vehicle. Any cancellations could harm our financial condition, business, prospects and operating results.

In addition, any projected revenue is based on a number of assumptions, including a projected purchase price for our trucks. If the purchase price of the trucks ends up being different than anticipated, we may not achieve the anticipated level of projected revenue, even if all of the trucks subject to reservations are sold or leased.

While we currently have a contract with AB to lease up to 800 Nikola Two FCEV trucks, if we are unable to deliver our trucks according to the vehicle specifications and delivery timelines set forth in the contract, AB has the right to cancel its
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order for trucks. Moreover, the AB contract specifies lease terms and rental rates that may be hard for us to meet depending on our ability to develop our trucks and hydrogen network according to current design parameters and cost estimates. Any of these adverse actions related to the AB order could harm our financial condition, business, prospects and operating results.

While we do not currently have any leasing arrangements finalized, in the future we intend to offer a bundled lease or other alternative structures to customers which would expose us to credit risk.

While we currently intend to offer bundled leasing of our trucks or other alternative structures to potential customers through a third-party financing partner, we currently have no agreement in place with any potential financing partner. We can provide no assurance that a third-party financing partner would be able or willing to provide the leasing services on terms that we have stated in our published materials, or to provide financing at all. Furthermore, offering a leasing alternative to customers will expose us to risks commonly associated with the extension of credit. Credit risk is the potential loss that may arise from any failure in the ability or willingness of the customer to fulfill its contractual obligations when they fall due. Competitive pressure and challenging markets may increase credit risk through leases to financially weak customers, extended payment terms and leases into new and immature markets. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, prospects, financial results and results of operations.

We face significant barriers to produce our trucks, and if we cannot successfully overcome those barriers our business will be negatively impacted.

The trucking industry has traditionally been characterized by significant barriers to entry, including large capital requirements, investment costs of designing and manufacturing vehicles, long lead times to bring vehicles to market from the concept and design stage, the need for specialized design and development expertise, regulatory requirements, establishing a brand name and image and the need to establish sales, leasing, fueling and service locations. If we are not able to overcome these barriers, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition will be negatively impacted and our ability to grow our business will be harmed.

Our future growth is dependent upon the trucking industry’s willingness to adopt BEV and FCEV trucks.

Our growth is highly dependent upon the adoption by the trucking industry of alternative fuel and electric trucks. If the market for our BEV and FCEV trucks does not develop at the rate or to the extent that we expect, our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results will be harmed. The market for alternative fuel and electric trucks is new and untested and is characterized by rapidly changing technologies, price competition, numerous competitors, evolving government regulation and industry standards and uncertain customer demands and behaviors.

Factors that may influence the adoption of alternative fuel and electric vehicles include:

perceptions about BEV or FCEV truck quality, safety, design, performance and cost, especially if adverse events or accidents occur that are linked to the quality or safety of alternative fuel or electric vehicles;
perceptions about vehicle safety in general, including the use of advanced technology, such as vehicle electronics, hydrogen fueling and storage and regenerative braking systems;
the decline of vehicle efficiency resulting from deterioration over time in the ability of the battery to hold a charge;
concerns about the availability of hydrogen stations, including those we plan to develop and deploy, which could impede our present efforts to promote FCEV trucks as a desirable alternative to diesel trucks;
improvements in the fuel economy of internal combustion engines;
the availability of service for alternative fuel or electric trucks;
volatility in the cost of energy, oil, gasoline and hydrogen;
government regulations and economic incentives promoting fuel efficiency and alternate forms of energy;
the availability of tax and other governmental incentives to purchase and operate alternative fuel and electric trucks or future regulation requiring increased use of nonpolluting trucks;
our ability to sell or lease trucks directly to business or customers dependent on state by state unique regulations and dealership laws;
the availability of tax and other governmental incentives to sell hydrogen;
perceptions about and the actual cost of alternative fuel; and
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macroeconomic factors.

Additionally, we may become subject to regulations that may require us to alter the design of our trucks, which could negatively impact customer interest in our products.

If our trucks fail to perform as expected, our ability to develop, market and sell or lease our alternative fuel and electric trucks could be harmed.

Once production commences, our trucks may contain defects in design and manufacture that may cause them not to perform as expected or may require repair. We currently have no frame of reference by which to evaluate the performance of our trucks upon which our business prospects depend. For example, our trucks will use a substantial amount of software to operate which will require modification and updates over the life of the vehicle. Software products are inherently complex and often contain defects and errors when first introduced.

There can be no assurance that we will be able to detect and fix any defects in the trucks’ hardware or software prior to commencing customer sales. We may experience recalls in the future, which could adversely affect our brand in our target markets and could adversely affect our business, prospects and results of operations. Our trucks may not perform consistent with customers’ expectations or consistent with other vehicles which may become available. Any product defects or any other failure of our trucks to perform as expected could harm our reputation and result in adverse publicity, lost revenue, delivery delays, product recalls, product liability claims and significant warranty and other expenses, and could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, operating results and prospects.

Although we hope to be among the first to bring BEV and FCEV Class 8 trucks to market, competitors have and may continue to enter the market before our trucks, which could have an adverse effect on our business.

We face intense competition in trying to be among the first to bring our BEV and FCEV truck platforms to market, including from companies in our target markets with greater financial resources, more extensive development, manufacturing, marketing and service capabilities, greater brand recognition and a larger number of managerial and technical personnel. If competitor’s trucks are brought to market before our trucks, we may experience a reduction in potential market share.

Many of our current and potential competitors, particularly international competitors, have significantly greater financial, techni