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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 10, 2020

Registration No. 333-            


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM S-1
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933



CASPER SLEEP INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  2510
(Primary Standard Industrial
Classification Code Number)
  46-3987647
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)

Three World Trade Center
175 Greenwich Street, Floor 39
New York, New York 10007
Telephone: (347) 941-1871

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant's principal executive offices)



Jonathan Truppman
General Counsel
Casper Sleep Inc.
Three World Trade Center
175 Greenwich Street, Floor 39
New York, New York 10007
Telephone: (347) 941-1871

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)



Copies to:
Marc D. Jaffe, Esq.
Ian D. Schuman, Esq.
Adam J. Gelardi, Esq.
Latham & Watkins LLP
885 Third Avenue
New York, New York 10022
Telephone: (212) 906-1200
Fax: (212) 751-4864
  David Goldschmidt, Esq.
Ryan Dzierniejko, Esq.
Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP
Four Times Square
New York, New York 10036
Telephone: (212) 735-3000
Fax: (212) 735-2000



APPROXIMATE DATE OF COMMENCEMENT OF PROPOSED SALE TO THE PUBLIC:
AS SOON AS PRACTICABLE AFTER THIS REGISTRATION STATEMENT IS DECLARED EFFECTIVE.



           If any of the securities being registered on this form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, check the following box. o

           If this form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o

           If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o

           If this form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(d) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o

           Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of "large accelerated filer," "accelerated filer," "smaller reporting company" and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer o   Accelerated filer o   Non-accelerated filer ý   Smaller reporting company o

Emerging growth company ý

           If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. o



CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

       
 
Title of each class of securities
to be registered

  Proposed maximum
aggregate
offering price(1)(2)

  Amount of
registration fee

 

Common Stock, $0.000001 par value per share

  $100,000,000   $12,980

 

(1)
Estimated solely for the purpose of calculating the registration fee pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

(2)
Includes the offering price of shares of common stock that may be sold if the option to purchase additional shares of common stock granted by the Registrant to the underwriters is exercised.

           The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

   


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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

    ii  

TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADE NAMES

    ii  

MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

    iii  

PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

    1  

RISK FACTORS

    26  

CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

    70  

USE OF PROCEEDS

    72  

CAPITALIZATION

    73  

DIVIDEND POLICY

    76  

DILUTION

    77  

SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA

    79  

MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

    81  

LETTER FROM PHILIP KRIM, CO-FOUNDER AND CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

    100  

BUSINESS

    129  

MANAGEMENT

    172  

EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION

    180  

CERTAIN RELATIONSHIPS AND RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS

    197  

PRINCIPAL STOCKHOLDERS

    201  

DESCRIPTION OF CERTAIN INDEBTEDNESS

    204  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

    206  

SHARES ELIGIBLE FOR FUTURE SALE

    213  

MATERIAL U.S. FEDERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS FOR NON-U.S. HOLDERS OF COMMON STOCK

    216  

UNDERWRITERS

    220  

LEGAL MATTERS

    228  

EXPERTS

    228  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

    228  

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    F-1  



        Neither we nor any of the underwriters have authorized anyone to provide any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus or in any related free writing prospectuses. Neither we nor any of the underwriters take responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. This prospectus is an offer to sell only the shares of common stock offered by this prospectus, but only under circumstances and in jurisdictions where it is lawful to do so. The information contained in this prospectus is current only as of its date regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of shares of common

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stock. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospectus may have changed since that date.

        For investors outside the United States: We have not, and the underwriters have not, done anything that would permit this offering or the possession or distribution of this prospectus or any free writing prospectus we may provide to you in connection with this offering in any jurisdiction where action for purpose is required, other than in the United States. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the shares of common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. See "Underwriters."


ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

        As used in this prospectus, unless the context otherwise requires, references to "we," "us," "our," the "Company," "Casper," and similar references refer to Casper Sleep Inc. together with its subsidiaries. "Net Promoter Score," or "NPS," refers to our net promoter score, which can range from a low of negative 100 to a high of positive 100, that we use to gauge customer satisfaction. NPS benchmarks can vary significantly by industry, but a score greater than zero represents a company having more promoters than detractors. NPS reflects client responses to the following question—"On a scale of zero to ten: How likely are you to recommend Casper to a friend or colleague?" Responses of 9 or 10 are considered "promoters," responses of 7 or 8 are considered neutral or "passives," and responses of 6 or less are considered "detractors." We then subtract the number of respondents who are detractors from the number of respondents who are promoters and divide that number by the total number of respondents. Our methodology of calculating NPS reflects responses from customers who purchase products from us in our direct-to-consumer channel and choose to respond to the survey question. In particular, it reflects responses given between January 1, 2019, and September 30, 2019, and reflects a sample size of 11,537 responses over that period. NPS gives no weight to customers who decline to answer the survey question.

        Certain monetary amounts, percentages, and other figures included in this prospectus have been subject to rounding adjustments. Percentage amounts included in this prospectus have not in all cases been calculated on the basis of such rounded figures, but on the basis of such amounts prior to rounding. For this reason, percentage amounts in this prospectus may vary from those obtained by performing the same calculations using the figures in our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. Certain other amounts that appear in this prospectus may not sum due to rounding.


TRADEMARKS, SERVICE MARKS AND TRADE NAMES

        This prospectus includes our trademarks, and trade names, including but not limited to Casper®, A New Day in Sleep®, Bedtime is Back®, Great Minds Sleep Alike™, and It's Bedtime Somewhere®, which are protected under applicable intellectual property laws. This prospectus also contains trademarks, trade names, and service marks of other companies, which are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, trademarks, trade names, and service marks referred to in this prospectus may appear without the ®, ™, or SM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that we will not assert, to the fullest extent permitted under applicable law, our rights or the right of the applicable licensor to these trademarks, trade names, and service marks. We do not intend our use or display of other parties' trademarks, trade names, or service marks to imply, and such use or display should not be construed to imply, a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, these other parties.

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MARKET AND INDUSTRY DATA

        Unless otherwise indicated, information contained in this prospectus concerning the industries in which we operate, competitive position, and the markets in which we operate is based on information from independent industry and research studies and reports, including the Frost & Sullivan Global Total Addressable Market (TAM) Assessment for the Sleep Economy, or the Frost & Sullivan Assessment, which was commissioned by us in 2019, other third-party sources, and management estimates. This information involves many assumptions and limitations, and you are cautioned not to give undue weight to these estimates and information. Although we have not independently verified the accuracy or completeness of any third-party information, we believe the information in this prospectus concerning the industries in which we operate, competitive positions, and the markets in which we operate is reliable. Management estimates are derived from publicly available information released by independent industry analysts and other third-party sources, as well as data from our internal research, and are based on assumptions made by us upon reviewing such data, and our experience in, and knowledge of, such industries and markets, which we believe to be reasonable. In addition, projections, assumptions, and estimates of the future performance of the industries and markets in which we operate and our future performance are necessarily subject to uncertainty and risk due to a variety of factors, including those described in "Risk Factors" and "Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements." These and other factors could cause results to differ materially from those expressed in the estimates made by the independent parties and by us.

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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

        This summary highlights selected information contained elsewhere in this prospectus. This summary does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding to invest in our common stock. You should read the entire prospectus carefully, including the sections entitled "Risk Factors," "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," and our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus, before making an investment decision. Some of the statements in this prospectus constitute forward-looking statements. See "Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements."

Overview

        People spend more time sleeping than on any other single activity throughout their lives. When we sleep better, we experience better hours awake, making us more productive, creative, happy, and healthy. We believe sleep is rapidly becoming the third pillar of wellness and is poised to undergo the same massive transformation that fitness and nutrition have as they became major consumer categories.

        As the wellness equation increasingly evolves to include sleep, the business of sleep is growing and evolving into what we call the Sleep Economy. We are helping to accelerate this transformation. Our mission is to awaken the potential of a well-rested world, and we want Casper to become the top-of-mind brand for best-in-class products and experiences that improve how we sleep.

        As a pioneer of the Sleep Economy, we bring the benefits of cutting-edge technology, data, and insights directly to consumers. We focus on building direct relationships with consumers, providing a human experience, and making shopping for sleep joyful. We meet consumers wherever they are, online and in person, providing a fun and engaging experience, while reducing the hassles associated with traditional purchases. We are building a universal, enduring brand that is already embraced by over 1.4 million happy customers.

        We do all of this because we understand the consumer. Shopping for sleep is a highly considered and personal decision. Today's consumers research their purchases and move freely back and forth from online to offline. At Casper, we put the consumer first in everything we do and invest to ensure long-term valuable relationships where consumers return again and again to shop for more sleep products and services.

        We believe great brands win over the long-term and have the ability to change the culture around them. We have endeavored to build a brand that is genuine, trustworthy, and approachable, as well as fun and playful. Through our investment in a sophisticated and integrated marketing strategy, we engage consumers across the entire consumer journey, from our iconic public transit advertising campaigns, to our "Napmobiles" and experiential retail store concepts, to our category-leading social media presence. We see the Casper brand as an immeasurably valuable asset that we are utilizing to help capture a large share of the Sleep Economy.

        Product innovation and excellence lie at the heart of our business. Since the release of our first product, the award-winning Casper mattress, we have expanded into pillows, sheets, duvets, bedroom furniture, sleep accessories, sleep technology, and sleep services. We design and engineer our products in-house at Casper Labs. We believe this state-of-the-art research and development facility puts Casper on the cutting edge of sleep innovations. We employ a team of data-driven researchers, designers, and engineers focused on building a better night's sleep through innovative new products such as our Wave mattress with hyper-targeted support technology and the revolutionary Glow Light, which is designed to synchronize with the body's circadian rhythm and was named one of Time Magazine's Best Inventions of 2019. We believe that no other company catering to the Sleep Economy has our level of product development talent, resources, data-driven insights, or expertise.

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        We seek to deliver a joyful shopping experience, regardless of sales channel. Our consumer experience includes knowledgeable and consultative sales associates, appealing and thoughtfully curated stores, immersive in-store trials, engaging and convenient online shopping, and fast and flexible delivery. The Casper experience allows consumers to seamlessly navigate between online and offline channels, eliminating boundaries, and reducing the friction associated with traditional purchases. Currently, we distribute our products directly to customers in seven countries through our e-commerce platform, 60 Casper retail stores, and 18 retail partners.

        In our first five years, Casper has experienced rapid growth. We believe our consumer focus, innovative products, and multichannel go-to-market strategy differentiate us both from legacy competitors and new entrants. For the years 2018, 2017, and 2016, our net revenue was $357.9 million, $250.9 million, and $169.1 million, respectively, representing a 45.5% compound annual growth rate, or CAGR, and for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, our net revenue was $312.3 million and $259.7 million, respectively, representing 20.3% year-over-year growth.

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The Sleep Economy

        We believe that the Sleep Economy represents a rapidly growing and traditionally fragmented market.

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        Consumers are increasingly recognizing quality sleep as a key component of a healthy lifestyle. There are many factors affecting sleep quality, including light, sound, temperature and humidity, mattress and bedding selection, as well as bedtime and wake-up rituals. Importantly, we believe that sleep consists of more than just the act of sleeping, and instead, includes the entire set of human behaviors that span from bedtime to wake-up and affect sleep quality—this is what we refer to as the Sleep Arc. With outspoken proponents, from CEOs and business leaders to celebrities and professional athletes, the concept that high-quality sleep is critical to health and wellness is becoming well known. Further, as consumers become educated around the serious potential health consequences of poor sleep, they are poised to spend more on sleep products in the same way that they have increased spending in other areas of health and wellness. However, unlike other categories of health and wellness, historically there were no powerful brands that provided holistic solutions to the Sleep Economy. Instead, the Sleep Economy has traditionally been characterized by a fragmented set of providers across different products, services, and use cases.

        Our approach is to offer products and services across the entirety of the Sleep Arc under one brand. Our offerings encompass traditional sleep categories for consumers, such as mattresses, soft goods, and bedroom furniture, and are increasingly focused on non-traditional categories, including products that promote the ideal ambience for sleep, such as lighting, sound, scents, temperature, and humidity; sleep technology, such as tracking devices, medical machines, bedside clocks, and connected devices; sleep supplements, such as sprays, pills, and vitamins; and sleep services, such as digital apps, meditation, sleep programming, and counseling. Beyond the daily sleep needs of adults, we aim to meet a range of use cases with unique product and service needs, such as for travel, children and babies, and

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pets. We believe we are the first company that understands and serves the Sleep Economy in a holistic way.

The Sleep Economy is Large and Growing

        The Frost & Sullivan Assessment forecasts the global Sleep Economy to be $432 billion in 2019, growing at a CAGR of 6.3% to $585 billion by 2024, and forecasts the U.S. Sleep Economy to be $79 billion in 2019, growing at a CAGR of 3.6% to $95 billion by 2024.

Global Sleep Economy, 2019-2024

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        The global Sleep Economy is comprised of a variety of products, services, and applications.

Global Sleep Economy by Product Category, 2019
$432bn

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        The total market size of the categories and geographies we currently address is $67 billion in 2019, leaving significant opportunity for growth.

Casper's Sleep Economy Opportunity in 2019

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Growth of the Sleep Economy is Driven by Attractive Trends

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Our Competitive Strengths

        We believe we are changing the way that people shop for sleep by transforming what has historically been an impersonal, highly-pressured, one-time transaction into a rewarding and long-term relationship. Sleep products are highly personal and purchases of sleep products can require substantial consumer time and research. We understand that the path to purchase typically includes multiple touchpoints across both physical and online sales channels and can span weeks or months of education and deliberation.

        We have built a company based on this understanding of our consumers' purchasing behavior, with a focus on building long-term relationships where consumers return again and again to shop for more sleep products and services. We believe our trusted brand, continued investment into the consumer experience, innovative products, multi-channel approach, and relentless focus on data have resulted in strong customer relationships with significant lifetime values. We have compelling experiences with customers making repeat purchases despite the fact that the traditional replacement cycle of many of our products is longer than Casper's existence. From Casper's beginning through September 30, 2019, we have seen more than 16% of customers who have purchased at least once through our direct-to-consumer channel return to purchase another product. Importantly, 14% of our customers returned within a year of their original purchase (excluding those customers whose original purchase date was less than one year prior to September 30, 2019 and had not made a repeat purchase as of that date). Further, 20% of customers in our direct-to-consumer channel during the first nine months of 2019 were repeat customers.

        The following strengths differentiate us from our competitors and drive our success.

A Transformational, Consumer-Centric Sleep Brand

        We see Casper's powerful brand as a market-defining opportunity and an immeasurably valuable asset. Our brand is genuine, trustworthy, and approachable, as well as fun and playful. With $422.8 million invested in marketing from January 1, 2016 through September 30, 2019, we have elevated our brand through a sophisticated, data-driven, and integrated marketing strategy. The success of this strategy has helped us build our brand into a household name and created a large and highly engaged consumer following.

In just five years, our consumer-centric focus has allowed us to achieve the following milestones as of September 30, 2019:

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        Our customers are brand champions and serve as a valuable source of referrals to friends and family, a built-in market as we further develop new products and services, and a source of future growth as they replace previously purchased Casper or competitor products. Based on a recent survey of Casper customers, we are proud that the largest source of new customers for Casper is referrals from happy, satisfied customers to their friends and family. Additionally, our brand attracts new retail partners looking to diversify their consumer profile and increase in-store foot and web traffic. We believe the strength of our brand is integral to the growth of our business, and we will continue to focus on enhancing our brand to maintain and further our competitive advantage.

An Innovative Products and Services Platform Built for Better Sleep

        Since our founding in 2014, Casper has delivered innovative products and services that enable our customers to achieve a better night's sleep. Our story started with our first product, the award-winning Casper mattress, which was rated America's number one mattress in October 2018 and named one of "The Most Influential Products of the Past Decade" by Consumer Reports in December 2019. We subsequently developed a range of mattresses and expanded into pillows, sheets and duvets, bedroom furniture and accessories, sleep technology, and related services.

        Product innovation and excellence lie at the heart of our business. Based in San Francisco, Casper Labs has over 25,000 square feet of fabrication and test space, featuring state-of-the-art capabilities to test against a wide range of factors affecting sleep quality. We employ over 40 dedicated researchers, designers, engineers, and support staff focused on building a better night's sleep through innovative new products and services development and the continuous improvement of existing offerings. We believe that no other company in the category has our level of product development talent, resources, or expertise.

        Our products seek to address real life sleep challenges by addressing a variety of factors that impact sleep including: the microclimate under the covers, through the regulation of humidity and temperature; comfort and support, through the use of high-quality materials and ergonomic designs; and lighting in the sleep environment, through smart devices that provide sleep-conducive lighting. We also work to address "the little things" in our products, offering innovative features to make the sleep experience better and less stressful. These features range from simple solutions such as head and foot markings on bed sheets for ease of placement, to our gesture-controlled Glow Light.

        We also offer sleep-related services that complement our sleep products. Such services are currently focused on providing a seamless purchase and delivery experience, a range of financing options and extended warranties, online sleep content, and an app that accompanies the Glow Light. For instance, we offer various delivery options, in-home setup services, mattress removal, no-hassle returns, and product warranties that focus on providing fast and quality service options to consumers. With the launch of The Sleep Channel, a social media offering that includes meditations, bedtime stories, and soothing sounds to help you fall asleep, we are broadening our offerings across the Sleep Economy.

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        We believe the high-quality nature of our products and continual iterative improvement have helped drive Casper's strong repeat customer business—from Casper's beginning through September 30, 2019, we have seen over 16% of our customers who have purchased at least once returning to make a repeat purchase, with the repeat customer rate reaching 20% for the first nine months of 2019. These repeat consumers most frequently return to purchase the same product—for example, a mattress customer returning to purchase a second or third mattress, which indicates our customers are looking for sleep solutions for other bedrooms and, in some cases, have shortened traditional replacement cycles for their existing sleep products. We believe that, as existing customers return to Casper for additional bedroom solutions, we have the opportunity to offer these customers more holistic sleep solutions in adjacent categories, particularly as our product portfolio and cross-sell capabilities grow.

A Joyful Consumer Experience

        We believe a joyful consumer experience differentiates us from legacy competitors. Our consumers benefit from knowledgeable, consultative sales associates, appealing and thoughtfully curated stores, immersive in-store trials, engaging and convenient online shopping, and fast and flexible delivery.

        Our approachable and transparent shopping experience is achieved through:

        Our business is dependent on our ability to attract new customers and retain existing customers through a joyful consumer experience.

A Synergistic, Multi-Channel Go-to-Market Approach

        Sleep products are personal, often significant investments that can require substantial consumer consideration and research. Our data shows that the path to purchase may include multiple touchpoints across both physical and online sales channels and can involve weeks of education and deliberation.

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Consumers research online, test products in stores, consult friends, and speak with customer service teams, and they expect the companies with whom they interact to facilitate this journey. We believe our multi-channel expansion creates synergies and that these channels, to date, have proven to be complementary, not cannibalistic. In fact, for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, our direct-to-consumer sales in cities where we have opened retail stores have grown over 100% faster on average than cities without a Casper retail store.

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        We distribute our products through a flexible, multi-channel approach, combining our direct-to-consumer channel, including our e-commerce platform and retail stores, with our retail partnerships. We strive to ensure a consistent look, feel, and approach across our channels, product and service offerings, pricing, return policies, warranties, inventory availability, and brand presentation. We believe that consumers increasingly expect consistency between digital and physical retail, and Casper is focused on ensuring the best possible experience for consumers throughout their journey, regardless of channel.

        Our e-commerce sales are generated through casper.com, which has country-specific functionality, and a best-in-class guided user experience supported by Sleep Specialists available through phone, chat, email, and social channels. We have also invested in large digital product and technology engineering teams who develop and maintain our desktop and mobile platforms. Our digital platforms also allow for constant experimentation and rich data collection that enable us to improve key business variables such as pricing offers and promotions, upsell incentives, responsiveness, conversion efficiency, and advertising effectiveness, all of which help inform our marketing mix and attribution models and further

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our business. Across our e-commerce channel, our average order value, or AOV, which is defined as net revenue divided by total orders placed, increased from $583 in 2017 to $686 in 2018 and to $710 for the nine months ended September 30, 2019. From 2017 through September 30, 2019, while growing our e-commerce channel, we have maintained 'first purchase profitable' e-commerce economics, defined as gross profit dollars, less marketing dollars, over a specific time period.

        We currently operate 60 retail stores in the United States and Canada. As of September 30, 2019, our existing stores that have been operating for one year or longer are all four-wall profitable, calculated as gross profit, less operating expenses (excluding one-time build-out costs and non-allocable marketing and overhead expenses), for each store. In addition, as of September 30, 2019, our stores that have been operating for one year or longer have averaged approximately $1,600 in annual net sales per sellable square foot, which we believe is reflective of our high volumes of consumer traffic, our ability to successfully engage with consumers to drive sales, and an effective pricing strategy. Consistent with our experience to date, we target for our future retail stores a cash-on-cash payback period ranging from 18 to 24 months. Consumers have proven to be highly engaged when they experience our retail stores and spend, on average, more than 25 minutes in store when they visit. Across our retail channel, our AOV increased from $437 in 2017 to $720 in 2018 and to $820 for the nine months ended September 30, 2019. Our presence in physical retail stores has proven complementary to our e-commerce channel, as we believe interaction with multiple channels has created a synergistic "network effect" that increases system-wide sales as a whole. Driving continued success in our retail store expansions will be an important contributor to our future growth and profitability.

        Additionally, our retail partnerships allow us to further grow our brand reach as we selectively pursue partnerships with like-minded retailers. Currently, we have 18 retail partners including Amazon, Costco, Hudson's Bay Company, and Target, among others. Casper works with each retail partner to enhance the consumer experience and to best showcase select Casper sleep products. We tailor our approach to each retail partner with a variety of options, including unique floor positioning, visual merchandising, inventory availability, flexible packaging options, training, and marketing support while maintaining consistent brand, pricing, and product offerings across our business.

Agile, Data-Driven Business

        We believe we have more data on consumer sleep behavior than any other competitor, and we use it to enhance all areas of our business. We gather data from a variety of sources including webpage visits, retail store analytics technology, retail points of sale, delivery partners, retail partners, media partners, social media, consumer reviews, inbound consumer interactions, returns, and a variety of third-party data sources. Our in-house teams of data scientists and analysts leverage this data for insights to enhance various areas of our business including new product development, current product improvements, casper.com user experience optimizations, pricing, and delivery improvements.

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        Data and analytics are at the heart of our marketing strategy, and we constantly test and experiment to further grow our business. We leverage sophisticated proprietary marketing decision models to inform both our absolute spend and our relative spend allocation among marketing channels, as well as the pacing of spend by part of day and week. The bulk of our data models have been built in-house by a team of data scientists, statisticians, and engineers. We believe this level of insight has not been brought to bear on the Sleep Economy prior to Casper.

A Visionary, Founder-led Team

        Our story began in 2014 with five founders who shared a common vision: bring sleep to the forefront of the wellness conversation. That same spirit of innovation and consumer-focused attitude guides Casper to this day and extends to all members of the organization. We are currently led by a team of experienced executives with diverse industry backgrounds and who have worked for companies such as Amazon, Google, H&R Block, IDEO, Kate Spade, Ralph Lauren, Tesla, Tory Burch, and Wayfair. Our management team has proven track records of generating results through developing powerful consumer insights, designing best-in-class products, and building scalable global operations, all while preserving the same entrepreneurial spirit that drove Casper from the start.

        Our leadership team is supported by a world-class board of directors with experience successfully investing in, building, and running high-growth, consumer-focused global companies. Further, our leadership team is supported by a Sleep Advisory Board assembled from experts in the fields of sleep research, clinical psychology, and integrated medicine who are all committed to Casper's vision.

Our Growth Strategy

        We have achieved rapid growth, generating 45.5% net revenue CAGR from 2016 to 2018, and 20.3% year-over-year net revenue growth for the nine months ended September 30, 2019. We have also expanded our gross margin from 42.8% in 2016 to 44.1% in 2018 and to 50.7% for the three months ended September 30, 2019, while making significant long-term investments in human capital, research and development, brand-building, and distribution. Our continued investment in, and expansion of, the Casper brand, distribution, and product offerings will further increase opportunities to acquire new customers and expand relationships with our existing customer base.

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        We believe we are creating a meaningful future customer asset. As of September 30, 2019, over 16% of customers who have purchased at least once since Casper's inception have made a repeat purchase, despite the fact that the traditional replacement cycle of many of our products is longer than Casper's existence. This demonstrates that customers are returning to Casper to expand the number of products they own, not merely to replace them—we expect this rate to grow further as we expand our product and consumer offerings for our customers. Importantly, we are also able to acquire these returning customers more efficiently than new customers. While we are proud of our accomplishments to date, we believe the most exciting opportunities for Casper's growth story lie ahead, and we intend to pursue the following strategies to help us achieve this growth.

Increase Brand Awareness and Equity to Acquire New Customers

        Increasing brand awareness and growing favorable brand equity among consumers in both existing and new markets has been, and remains, central to our growth. We believe brand familiarity and preference will continue to have a significant role in winning customers as the decision to buy sleep products and solutions is thoughtful and personal.

        Our investment in marketing initiatives from 2016 to September 30, 2019 totaled $422.8 million. In just five years, as of September 30, 2019, we have achieved 31% aided brand awareness amongst the general U.S. population according to YouGov BrandIndex. Additionally, for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, Casper's brand awareness is approximately 36% higher on average than the nearest direct-to-consumer competitor. We are excited about the opportunities that we believe will follow as awareness continues to grow.

        We drive brand awareness through a combination of sophisticated, multi-layered marketing programs, word-of-mouth referrals, experiential brand events, retail expansion, and ongoing product usage. A core tenet of our brand growth strategy is offering consumers increased ways to engage with our products and services, both online and offline through our direct-to-consumer channel and our retail partners.

Expand Direct-to-Consumer Presence and Network of Retail Partnerships

        We complement our strong online presence by expanding our physical retail footprint to deliver additional consumer touchpoints and increase sales and margin. A greater physical retail presence helps us to not only increase consumer awareness and education, but also to offer convenient product trial opportunities, multiple purchase options, and flexibility in delivery.

        We plan to continue the rollout of new Casper retail stores to strengthen our footprint in existing cities, while selectively entering into new cities in the United States, Canada, and other international markets. Our new store opening process is highly scalable, and we believe there is a significant opportunity for us to further expand our retail store base. We expect that our typical new stores will have between 1,750 and 2,250 square feet of selling space. Over time, we believe there is an opportunity to have more than 200 Casper retail stores in North America alone. We believe our multi-channel expansion creates synergies and that these channels, to date, have proven to be complementary, not cannibalistic. In fact, for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, our direct-to-consumer sales in cities where we have opened retail stores have grown over 100% faster on average than cities without a Casper retail store. From 2017 through September 30, 2019, while growing our e-commerce channel, we have maintained 'first purchase profitable' e-commerce economics.

        Casper works with each retail partner to enhance the consumer experience and to best showcase select Casper sleep offerings in their physical environments and their online platforms. We tailor our approach to each retail partner with a variety of options, including unique floor positioning, visual merchandising, inventory availability, flexible packaging options, training, and marketing support while maintaining consistent brand, pricing, and product SKU offerings across our business. We believe we have an opportunity to increase sales by adding new locations, with both existing and new partners, and increase volume in existing locations.

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        We will continue to invest in e-commerce technology, talent, and marketing to complement our physical retail strategy.

Invest in New Products and Services

        We plan to continue to offer products and services that span and work together across the entire Sleep Arc. We believe this expansion will attract new customer segments and retail partners, as well as enhance average order value, increase attachment rate opportunities, and deliver higher overall customer lifetime value.

        Casper Labs sits at the center of our ability to continue bringing innovative and enhanced performance-driven products to market with both speed and excellence. Casper's powerful products increasingly cover the entire Sleep Arc, profoundly impact sleep performance, introduce us to new markets and distribution partners, and increase the lifetime value of our customer relationships.

        We anticipate that growth of our products and services will span entirely new categories of the Sleep Arc, including:

Drive Continued Operational Excellence

        We are committed to improving productivity and profitability through a number of operational initiatives designed to grow our revenue and expand our margins. To date, Casper has had significant results improving gross margins, achieving 50.7% in gross margin for the three months ended September 30, 2019, up from 42.8% for the year ended December 31, 2016. Overall business profitability will be driven by continued net revenue growth in conjunction with gross margin improvements, continued marketing efficiencies, and generating operating leverage. We believe there is opportunity for continued improvement in gross margins, marketing efficiencies, and operating leverage through these key initiatives:

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Expand into New Countries

        Our vision of becoming the world's most loved and largest sleep company leads to further global growth opportunities. Casper currently operates in seven countries—the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and France—with product and service offerings tailored to each market by channel but maintaining a consistent brand and consumer experience. We carefully balance brand, creative consistency and global standardization—including leveraging back and middle office, and technology support—balancing local preferences and market tastes in product, sizing, and distribution in order to both ensure strong consumer relevance and maximize company synergies. We intend to expand into new international markets organically, through acquisitions, and through other partnership opportunities, depending on the best product and channel strategy for each country or region. We envision expanding our total international footprint to more than 20 countries.

Summary Risk Factors

        Participating in this offering involves substantial risk. Our ability to execute our strategy is also subject to certain risks. The risks described under the heading "Risk Factors" included elsewhere in this prospectus may cause us not to realize the full benefits of our strengths or may cause us to be unable to successfully execute all or part of our strategy. Some of the most significant challenges and risks include the following:

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        Before you invest in our common stock, you should carefully consider all the information in this prospectus, including matters set forth under the heading "Risk Factors."

Our Corporate Information

        Casper Sleep Inc., the issuer of our common stock in this offering, was incorporated as a Delaware corporation on October 24, 2013 under the name Providence Mattress Company, and subsequently changed its name to Casper Sleep Inc. on January 10, 2014. Our corporate headquarters are located at Three World Trade Center, 175 Greenwich Street, Floor 39, New York, New York 10007. Our telephone number is (347) 941-1871. Our principal website address is www.casper.com. The information on, or that can be accessed through, any of our websites is deemed not to be incorporated in this prospectus or to be part of this prospectus.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company

        We qualify as an "emerging growth company" as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. An emerging growth company may take advantage of certain reduced reporting and other requirements that are otherwise generally applicable to public companies. As a result:

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        We may take advantage of these reduced reporting and other requirements until the last day of our fiscal year following the fifth anniversary of the completion of this offering, or such earlier time that we are no longer an emerging growth company. If certain events occur prior to the end of such five-year period, including if we have more than $1.07 billion in annual gross revenue, have more than $700 million in market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates, or issue more than $1.0 billion of non-convertible debt over a three-year period, we will cease to be an emerging growth company prior to the end of such five-year period. We may choose to take advantage of some but not all of these reduced requirements. We have elected to adopt the reduced requirements with respect to our financial statements and the related selected financial data and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" disclosure. We have also elected to take advantage of the extended transition periods for complying with new or revised accounting standards. As a result, the information that we provide to stockholders may be different than the information you may receive from other public companies in which you hold equity.

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THE OFFERING

Shares of common stock offered by us

              shares (            shares if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full).

Shares of common stock to be outstanding after this offering

 

            shares (            shares if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full).

Over-allotment option to purchase additional shares of common stock

 

            shares.

Use of proceeds

 

We estimate, based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $        per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately $        million (or $        million if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full), after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 

We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital, to fund growth and for other general corporate purposes, including the repayment of approximately $        million of borrowings outstanding under our Senior Secured Facility. We will have broad discretion in the way that we use the net proceeds of this offering. See "Use of Proceeds."

Dividend policy

 

We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business and to repay indebtedness, and therefore we do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to compliance with contractual restrictions and covenants in the agreements governing our current and future indebtedness. Any such determination will also depend upon our business prospects, results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements and availability, industry trends, and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. See "Dividend Policy."

Risk factors

 

See the section titled "Risk Factors" and the other information included in this prospectus for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.

Trading symbol

 

We have applied to list our common stock on the NYSE under the symbol "CSPR."

        The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on                        shares of our common stock outstanding as of                        , 2019, after giving effect to the conversion of all outstanding shares of (i) our Series Seed preferred stock and Series A preferred

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stock into                shares of our Class A common stock and (ii) our Series B preferred stock, Series C preferred stock, and Series D preferred stock into                 shares of our Class B common stock, in each case immediately after the pricing of this offering, referred to herein as the Preferred Conversion, and the reclassification of all of our outstanding shares of Class A common stock and our Class B common stock (including shares issued upon the Preferred Conversion) into                shares of our common stock, immediately prior to the closing of this offering, referred to herein as the Reclassification, and excludes:

        Unless we indicate otherwise or the context otherwise requires, all information in this prospectus assumes or gives effect to:

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Summary Consolidated Financial and Other Data

        The following tables present the summary consolidated financial and other data for Casper Sleep Inc. and its subsidiaries. We have derived the summary consolidated statement of operations data and consolidated statement of cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018 and the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 and the summary consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2019 from our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. The unaudited interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited annual consolidated financial statements and reflect, in the opinion of management, all adjustments of a normal, recurring nature that are necessary for a fair statement of the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements. You should read this data together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and the sections titled "Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." Our historical results for any prior period are not necessarily indicative of our future results.

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  Nine Months Ended
September 30,
  Year Ended December 31,  
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
  2019   2018   2018   2017  
 
  (unaudited)
   
   
 

Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Loss:

                         

Revenue, net of $80,085, $57,659, $80,695 and $45,656 in refunds, returns, and discounts for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018 and the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively

  $ 312,319   $ 259,687   $ 357,891   $ 250,909  

Cost of goods sold

    157,342     143,556     200,139     134,038  

Gross profit

    154,977     116,131     157,752     116,871  

Operating expenses

                         

Sales and marketing expenses

    113,994     92,705     126,189     106,809  

General and administrative expense

    106,126     88,166     123,523     81,323  

Total operating expenses

    220,120     180,871     249,712     188,132  

Loss from operations

    (65,143 )   (64,740 )   (91,960 )   (71,261 )

Other (income) expense

                         

Interest (income) expense

    1,355     (503 )   (248 )   (307 )

Other (income) expense, net

    841     (51 )   341     2,415  

Total other (income) expenses, net

    2,196     (554 )   93     2,108  

Loss before income taxes

    (67,339 )   (64,186 )   (92,053 )   (73,369 )

Income tax expense

    60     44     39     23  

Net loss

    (67,399 )   (64,230 )   (92,092 )   (73,392 )

Other comprehensive income (loss)

                         

Currency translation adjustment

    75     (1,288 )   (1,077 )   279  

Total comprehensive loss

  $ (67,324 ) $ (65,518 ) $ (93,169 ) $ (73,113 )

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

  $ (6.40 ) $ (6.22 ) $ (8.91 ) $ (7.22 )

Weighted-average number of shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

    10,530,262     10,320,666     10,335,986     10,164,450  

Pro forma net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

                    $    

Pro forma weighted average number of shares used in computing net loss per share attributed to common stockholders, basic and diluted

                         

 

 
  Nine Months Ended
September 30,
  Year ended
December 31,
 
(in thousands)
  2019   2018   2018   2017  
 
  (unaudited)
   
   
 

Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows:

                         

Net cash used in operating activities

  $ (29,706 ) $ (44,934 ) $ (72,255 ) $ (84,015 )

Net cash used in investing activities

    (39,631 )   (7,249 )   (12,035 )   (10,085 )

Net cash provided by financing activities

    95,808     183     14,840     169,294  

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  Nine Months Ended
September 30,
  Year ended
December 31,
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
  2019   2018   2018   2017  
 
  (unaudited)
   
   
 

Select Other Data(1):

                         

Gross margin

    49.6 %   44.7 %   44.1 %   46.6 %

Adjusted EBITDA(2)

  $ (53,807 ) $ (57,458 ) $ (82,399 ) $ (70,549 )

 

 
  As of September 30, 2019  
(in thousands)
  Actual   Pro Forma(3)   Pro Forma
As Adjusted(3)(4)
 
 
  (unaudited)
 

Consolidated Balance Sheet:

                   

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash(5)

  $ 54,901   $     $    

Total assets

    192,509              

Total liabilities(6)

    169,767              

Additional paid-in capital

    15,716              

Accumulated deficit

    (299,619 )            

Stockholders' deficit

    (284,247 )            

(1)
See the definitions of key operating and financial metrics in "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Key Operating Metrics and Non-GAAP Financial Measures."

(2)
Adjusted EBITDA is a supplemental measure of our performance that is not required by, or presented in accordance with, GAAP. Adjusted EBITDA is not a measurement of our financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered as an alternative to net income or any other performance measure derived in accordance with GAAP.

We define Adjusted EBITDA as net loss before interest (income) expense, income tax expense and depreciation and amortization as further adjusted to exclude the impact of stock-based compensation expense, impairment and restructuring, and costs associated with legal settlements. We caution investors that amounts presented in accordance with our definition of Adjusted EBITDA may not be comparable to similar measures disclosed by our competitors, because not all companies and analysts calculate Adjusted EBITDA in the same manner. We present Adjusted EBITDA because we consider them to be important supplemental measures of our performance and believe it is frequently used by securities analysts, investors, and other interested parties in the evaluation of companies in our industry. Management believes that investors' understanding of our performance is enhanced by including this non-GAAP financial measure as a reasonable basis for comparing our ongoing results of operations.

Management uses Adjusted EBITDA:

as a measurement of operating performance because it assists us in comparing the operating performance of our business on a consistent basis, as it removes the impact of items not directly resulting from our core operations;

for planning purposes, including the preparation of our internal annual operating budget and financial projections;

to evaluate the performance and effectiveness of our operational strategies; and

to evaluate our capacity to expand our business.

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Due to these limitations, Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as measures of discretionary cash available to us to invest in the growth of our business. We compensate for these limitations by relying primarily on our GAAP results and using these non-GAAP measures only supplementally. As noted in the table below, Adjusted EBITDA includes adjustments to exclude the impact of stock-based compensation expense and material infrequent items, including but not limited to the costs of this initial public offering, impairment/restructuring, costs associated with legal settlements, acquisitions or divestitures, among other items. It is reasonable to expect that these items will occur in future periods. However, we believe these adjustments are appropriate because the amounts recognized can vary significantly from period to period, do not directly relate to the ongoing operations of our business and may complicate comparisons of our internal operating results and operating results of other companies over time. In addition, Adjusted EBITDA includes adjustments for other items that we do not expect to regularly record following this offering. Each of the normal recurring adjustments and other adjustments described in this paragraph and in the reconciliation table below help management with a measure of our core operating performance over time by removing items that are not related to day-to-day operations.
 
  Nine Months Ended
September 30,
  Year Ended
December 31,
 
(in thousands)
  2019   2018   2018   2017  
 
  (unaudited)
   
   
 

Net loss

  $ (67,399 ) $ (64,230 ) $ (92,092 ) $ (73,392 )

Income tax expense

    60     44     39     23  

Interest (income) expense

    1,355     (503 )   (248 )   (307 )

Depreciation and amortization

    4,804     2,394     3,426     1,675  

Stock-based compensation(a)

    5,648     4,573     5,716     1,423  

Impairment/reorganization(b)

    681         490      

Legal settlements(c)

    138     264     270     29  

Transaction costs(d)

    906              

Adjusted EBITDA

  $ (53,807 ) $ (57,458 ) $ (82,399 ) $ (70,549 )

(a)
Represents non-cash stock-based compensation expense.

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(b)
Represents costs associated with reorganizing our international organizational structure, including severance, contract termination costs, and other exit activities. There were no impairment charges in either period presented.

(c)
Amounts related to litigations settlements.

(d)
Represents expenses incurred for professional, consulting, legal, and accounting services performed in connection with this offering, which are not indicative of our ongoing costs and which we expect will discontinue following the completion of this offering.
(3)
Gives effect to (i) the Preferred Conversion, (ii) the Reclassification, and (iii) the related reclassification of the carrying value of the convertible preferred stock to permanent equity prior to the closing of this offering.

(4)
Gives effect to (i) the pro forma adjustments set forth in footnote (3) above and (ii) the issuance and sale of                shares of our common stock in this offering at the assumed initial public offering price of $            per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. A $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $            per share, which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase or decrease each of cash, total assets and total stockholders' equity on a pro forma basis by approximately $             million, assuming the number of shares offered, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

(5)
Includes $0.3 million of restricted cash.

(6)
Includes $25.0 million of long-term debt consisting of our Subordinated Facility and $15.9 million of short-term debt consisting of our Senior Secured Facility, of which approximately $            million of borrowings outstanding under our Senior Secured Facility will be repaid in connection with this offering. See "Use of Proceeds."

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RISK FACTORS

        Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully consider the following risk factors and all other information contained in this prospectus before purchasing our common stock. If any of the following risks occur, our business, financial condition, and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected. In that case, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you may lose some or all of your investment.

Risks Related to Our Business

We operate in highly competitive industries, and if we are unable to compete successfully it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        Our business is rapidly evolving and intensely competitive, and we have many competitors across what we define as the Sleep Economy, including in the mattress, soft goods, and bedroom furniture industries, as well as in non-traditional sleep categories, such as sleep technology, sleep services, and sleep supplements. Our competition with respect to these offerings includes: department and furniture stores, big-box retailers, specialty retailers, and online, direct-to-consumer mattress, and other home goods retailers and online marketplaces. Our core offerings compete with new and established manufacturers, direct-to-consumer companies, and white label in-house brands offered by some large retail chains, online retailers, and department stores. We believe that our ability to compete successfully depends upon many factors both within and beyond our control, including:

        In addition, retailers in the United States and internationally have integrated vertically in certain of the industries in which we operate, particularly as it relates to mattresses, and it is possible that such vertical integration may create circumstances that would negatively impact our net revenue and results of operations. Although we are pursuing a strategy to vertically integrate, we may not be successful in pursuing this strategy, which may make our products less desirable than products produced by our competitors who have complete control over the manufacturing process and the quality of their products. The highly competitive nature of the industries in which we operate means we are continually subject to the risk of loss of market share, loss of key retail partners, reductions in margins, and the inability to acquire new customers.

        Also, some of our current competitors have, and potential competitors may have, longer operating histories, greater brand recognition, larger fulfillment infrastructures, greater resources and technical

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capabilities, faster and less costly shipping, significantly greater financial, marketing and other resources and larger customer bases than we do. These factors may allow our competitors to derive greater net revenue and profits from their existing customer base, capture market share from us, acquire customers at lower costs, or respond more quickly than we can to new or emerging technologies and changes in consumer preferences or habits. These competitors may engage in more extensive research and development efforts, undertake more impactful marketing campaigns, and adopt more aggressive pricing strategies, which may allow them to build larger customer bases or generate net revenue from their customer bases more effectively than we do. For example, we compete with large retailers, such as Amazon and Wal-Mart, who have house brands that offer competing sleep products and who also have significantly greater scale and more sophisticated distribution operations than we do, a longer track record of successfully building trusted brands, greater technical capabilities and significantly more financial resources. Failure to successfully compete in the industries in which we operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our business depends on the strength of our brand, and if we are not able to maintain and enhance our brand, we may be unable to sell our products, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        Our brand name and image are integral to the growth of our business and to the implementation of our strategies for expanding our business. We believe that our brand image has significantly contributed to the success of our business and is critical to maintaining and expanding our customer base. Maintaining and enhancing our brand may require us to make substantial investments in areas such as research and development, marketing, e-commerce, and customer experience and these investments may not be successful.

        We anticipate that, as our business expands into new markets and new product categories, and as the industries in which we operate become increasingly competitive, maintaining and enhancing our brand may become difficult and expensive. For example, consumers in any new international markets into which we expand may not know our brand and/or may not accept our brand, resulting in increased costs to market and attract customers to our brand. Further, as we grow our retail partnerships, it may be difficult for us to maintain control of our brand with our retail partners, which may result in negative perceptions of our brand. Our brand may also be adversely affected if our public image or reputation is tarnished by negative publicity, including negative social media campaigns or poor reviews of our products or customer experiences. In addition, ineffective marketing, product diversion to unauthorized distribution channels, product defects, unfair labor practices, and failure to protect our intellectual property rights are some of the potential threats to the strength of our brand, and those and other factors could rapidly and severely diminish consumer confidence in us. Maintaining and enhancing our brand will depend largely on our ability to continue to be a leader in the industries in which we operate and to continue to offer a range of high-quality products as well as a leading end-to-end experience to our customers, which we may not execute successfully. Failure to maintain the strength of our brand could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

If we do not successfully implement our future retail store expansion, our growth and profitability could be harmed.

        We intend to continue to expand our existing direct-to-consumer channel by opening additional retail stores. Over time, we believe there is an opportunity to have more than 200 Casper stores in North America alone. Our ability to open new retail stores in a timely and efficient manner and

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operate them profitably depends on a number of factors, many of which are beyond our control, including:

        In order to pursue our retail store strategy, we will be required to expend significant cash and human capital resources prior to generating any sales in these stores. Delays in new store openings or an inability to generate sufficient sales from these stores to justify such expenses could harm our business and profitability. The substantial management time and resources which any future retail store

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expansion strategy may require could also result in disruption to our existing business operations which may decrease our net revenue and profitability.

If we are unable to successfully implement our growth strategies related to launching new products, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        Each year we invest significant time and resources in research and development to improve and expand our product offerings, introduce new technologies to customers, support our sales channels, and generate consumer interest and engagement. In 2019, we launched several new products, including our Casper and Wave Hybrid mattresses, Glow Light, Down Pillow, and Upholstered Bed Frame. In addition, from time to time, we also update existing product lines. Launching new products can involve a significant investment in advertising and public relations campaigns. There are also certain risks involved in launching new products, including increased costs in the near term associated with the introduction of new product lines and training of our employees in new manufacturing processes and sales techniques, development delays, failure of new products to achieve anticipated levels of market acceptance, the possibility of increased competition with our current products, and unrecovered costs associated with failed product or service introductions. Implementation of these plans may also divert management's attention from other aspects of our business and place a strain on management, operational and financial resources, as well as our information systems. Launching new products or updating existing products may also leave us with obsolete inventory that we may not be able to sell or we may sell at significantly discounted prices. Further, as we expand into new markets, we may not accurately predict consumer preferences in that market, which could result in lower than expected sales.

        Additionally, launching new products requires substantial investments in research and development. Investments in research and development are inherently speculative and require substantial capital and other expenditures. Unforeseen obstacles and challenges that we encounter in the research and development process could result in delays or the abandonment of plans to launch new products and may substantially increase development costs.

        If we are unable to maintain the high product-quality standards expected by our customers when we launch new products, or if our competitors are able to produce higher quality or more accessible products, our sales may be harmed. Should this occur, we may need to increase our investments in research and development and manufacturing processes, lower our prices or take other measures to address any loss of sales, which could increase our expenses, reduce our margins and/or negatively impact our brand and our ability to execute our overall pricing and promotion strategy.

        We may not be successful in executing our growth strategy related to launching new products, and even if we achieve such plan, we may not be able to achieve profitability. Failure to successfully launch new products could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our future growth and profitability depend on the effectiveness and efficiency of our marketing programs.

        We are highly dependent on the effectiveness of our marketing programs and the efficiency of our related expenditures in generating consumer awareness and sales of our products. We rely on a combination of paid and nonpaid advertising and public relations efforts to market our products.

        Our paid advertising efforts consist of online channels, including search engine marketing, display advertising, and paid social media, as well as more traditional forms of advertising, such as direct mail and television advertisements. These efforts are expensive and may not result in the cost-effective acquisition of customers. We cannot assure you that the net profit from new customers we acquire will ultimately exceed the cost of acquiring those customers. We also utilize non-paid advertising. Our non-paid advertising efforts include search engine optimization, non-paid social media and email.

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        Moreover, we rely in part upon third parties, such as search engines, social media influencers, and product reviewers, for both paid and unpaid services, and we are unable to fully control their efforts. We obtain a significant amount of traffic via search engines and, therefore, rely on search engines such as Google. Search engines frequently update and change the logic that determines the placement and display of results of a user's search, such that the purchased or algorithmic placement of links to our site can be negatively affected. Moreover, a search engine could, for competitive or other purposes, alter its algorithms or results in a manner that negatively affects our paid or non-paid search ranking, and competitive dynamics could impact the effectiveness of search engine marketing or search engine optimization. We also obtain a significant amount of traffic via social networking websites or other channels used by our current and prospective customers. As e-commerce and social networking continue to rapidly evolve, we must continue to establish relationships with these channels and may be unable to develop or maintain these relationships on acceptable terms. If we are unable to cost-effectively drive traffic to our sites, our ability to acquire new customers and our financial condition would suffer.

        In addition, the number of third-party providers of consumer product reviews, consumer recommendations, and referrals is growing across industries and may influence consumers. Negative or no reviews from such third parties may receive widespread attention from consumers, which could damage our reputation and brand value and result in lower sales. Influencers with whom we maintain relationships could also engage in behavior or use their platforms to communicate directly with our customers in a manner that reflects poorly on our brand and may be attributed to us or otherwise adversely affect us. It is not possible to prevent such behavior, and the precautions we take to detect this activity may not be effective in all cases. If we are unable to effectively manage relationships with such reviewers to promote accurate reviews of our products, reviewers may decline to review our products or may post reviews with misleading information, which could damage our reputation and make it more difficult for us to sustain or improve our brand value. Moreover, if any of the third parties on which we rely were to cease operations, temporarily or permanently, face financial distress or other business disruption, we could suffer increased costs and delays in their ability to provide similar services until an equivalent service provider could be found, or until we could develop replacement technology or operations, any of which could also have an adverse impact on our business and financial performance.

        We continue to evolve our marketing strategies, adjusting our messages, the amount we spend on advertising and where we spend it with no assurance that we will be successful in developing future effective messages and in achieving efficiency in our marketing and advertising expenditures. Our marketing activities and the marketing activities of any third parties on which we rely are subject to various types of regulations, including laws relating to the protection of personal information, consumer protection and competition. In addition, the regulatory environment surrounding the use of data is increasingly demanding. In recent years, lawmakers and regulators have expressed concern over the use of third-party cookies and similar technologies for online targeted advertising, and laws in this area in the European Union have been strengthened and are also under reform. Moreover, user data protection and communication-based laws may be interpreted and applied inconsistently from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, and these laws continue to develop in ways we cannot predict and that may adversely affect our business. Complying with these varying requirements could cause us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices in a manner with adverse effects on our business, and violations of privacy-related laws can result in significant penalties. These developments, including in the way these laws are interpreted, could impair our ability, or the ability of third parties on which we rely, to collect user information, including personal data and usage information, that helps us provide more targeted advertising to our current and prospective consumers, which could adversely affect our business, particularly given our use of cookies and similar technologies to target our marketing and personalize the consumer experience. See "—Failure to comply with federal, state and foreign laws and regulations relating to privacy, data protection and consumer protection, or the

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expansion of current or the enactment of new laws or regulations relating to privacy, data protection and consumer protection, could adversely affect our business and our financial condition."

        If our marketing programs and related expenditures are ineffective or are inefficient in creating and increasing awareness of our products and brand, in driving consumer traffic to our websites and stores and in motivating customers to purchase our products, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We have grown rapidly in recent years. If we are unable to manage our operations at our current size or to manage any future growth effectively, the pace of our growth may slow.

        We have expanded our operations rapidly since our founding in 2014. In 2014, we launched our e-commerce platform in the United States and Canada, followed by the European Union, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, in 2016. We launched our first retail concept in Los Angeles in 2015, followed by permanent retail stores in San Francisco and New York in 2017 and 2018, respectively, and we now have 60 retail stores across the United States and Canada. Our revenue increased from $250.9 million for 2017 to $357.9 million for 2018, an increase of 42.6%.

        If our operations are to continue to grow, of which there can be no assurance, we will be required to continue to (i) expand our sales and marketing, digital and technology teams, research and development, customer and commercial strategy, product offerings, supply, and manufacturing and distribution functions, (ii) upgrade our management information systems and other processes, and (iii) obtain more space for our expanding administrative support and other personnel. Our continued growth could increase the strain on our resources, and we could experience operating difficulties, including difficulties in hiring, training, and managing an increasing number of employees, finding manufacturing capacity to produce our products, and delays in production and shipments. These difficulties may result in the erosion of our brand image, divert the attention of management and key employees and impact financial and operational results. In addition, in order to continue to expand our direct-to-consumer presence and retail partnerships, we expect to continue to add selling and general and administrative expenses to our operating profile. If we are unable to drive commensurate growth, these costs, which include lease commitments, headcount and capital assets, could result in decreased margins.

We have a history of losses and expect to have operating losses and negative cash flow as we continue to expand our business.

        We have a history of losses. We incurred net losses of $92.1 million and $73.4 million in 2018 and 2017, respectively, and $232.2 million in accumulated deficit through December 31, 2018. Because we have a short operating history at scale, particularly in our own and third-party retail sales channels, it is difficult for us to predict our future operating results. As a result, our losses may be larger than anticipated, and we may not achieve profitability when expected, or at all. Also, we expect our operating expenses to increase over the next several years as we further increase marketing spend, open additional retail stores, hire more employees, continue to develop new products and services, and expand internationally. These efforts may be more costly than we expect and may not result in increased revenue or growth in our business. Any failure to increase our revenue sufficiently to keep pace with our investments and other expenses could prevent us from achieving or maintaining profitability or positive cash flow on a consistent basis. Furthermore, if our future growth and operating performance fail to meet investor or analyst expectations, or if we have future negative cash flow or losses resulting from our investment in acquiring new customers or expanding our business, our business, financial condition, and operating results may be materially adversely affected.

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We have a limited operating history and, as a result, our past results may not be indicative of future operating performance.

        We have a limited operating history with the current scale of our business, which makes it difficult to forecast our future results, particularly with respect to our own and third-party retail channels, which we have only recently developed. You should not rely on our past annual or quarterly results of operations as indicators of future performance. You should consider and evaluate our prospects in light of the risks and uncertainty frequently encountered by companies like ours. See "—We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations due to seasonality and other factors, which could make sequential quarter to quarter comparison an unreliable indication of our performance."

If we fail to attract new customers, or retain existing customers, or fail to do either in a cost-effective manner, we may not be able to increase sales.

        Our success depends, in part, on our ability to attract new, and retain existing, customers in a cost-effective manner. We have made, and we expect that we will continue to make, significant investments in attracting and retaining customers, including through traditional, digital, and social media and through developing original Casper content. Marketing campaigns can be expensive and may not result in the cost-effective acquisition, or retention, of customers. Further, as our brand becomes more widely known, future marketing campaigns may not attract new or retain customers at the same rate as past campaigns. If we are unable to attract new customers, and retain existing customers, our business will be harmed.

The market for sleep products and services as a retail category is still emerging and if it does not continue to grow, if it grows more slowly than expected or if it does not achieve the growth potential we expect, or if we do not succeed in becoming a leader or maintaining our leadership in this category, our brand, business, financial condition, or results of operations could be adversely affected.

        The market for sleep products and services as a distinct retail category continues to evolve, and it is uncertain whether the demand for our sleep products and services will continue to grow and achieve wide market acceptance. Our success will depend in significant part on the willingness of consumers to continue to invest in sleep products and services as a retail category and to view these products and services as part of a distinct business category that we call the Sleep Economy. If consumers do not continue to accept sleep as a wellness and a retail category or perceive our products to be beneficial, whether as a result of experiences with our product line or otherwise, then the market for sleep products and services may not develop further, may develop more slowly than we expect, or may not achieve the growth potential that we expect, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, financial condition, and results of operations. Moreover, even if the market for sleep develops, we may not succeed in our plan to become the category leader.

Use of social media and influencers may materially and adversely affect our reputation or subject us to fines or other penalties.

        We use third-party social media platforms as marketing tools, among other things. For example, we maintain Instagram, Snapchat, Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest accounts, as well as our Casper Sleep Channel on YouTube and Spotify. We also maintain relationships with thousands of social media influencers and engage in sponsorship initiatives. As existing e-commerce and social media platforms continue to rapidly evolve and new platforms develop, we must continue to maintain a presence on these platforms and establish presences on new or emerging popular social media platforms. If we are unable to cost-effectively use social media platforms as marketing tools or if the social media platforms we use do not evolve quickly enough for us to fully optimize such platforms, our ability to acquire new consumers and our financial condition may suffer. Furthermore, as laws and regulations rapidly evolve to govern the use of these platforms and devices, the failure by us, our employees, our network of

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social media influencers, our sponsors or third parties acting at our direction to abide by applicable laws and regulations in the use of these platforms and devices or otherwise could subject us to regulatory investigations, class action lawsuits, liability, fines or other penalties and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results.

        In addition, an increase in the use of social media for marketing may cause an increase in the burden on us to monitor compliance of such materials, and increase the risk that such materials could contain problematic product or marketing claims in violation of applicable regulations. For example, in some cases, the Federal Trade Commission, or the FTC, has sought enforcement action where an endorsement has failed to clearly and conspicuously disclose a material relationship between an influencer and an advertiser. While we ask influencers to comply with the FTC regulations and our guidelines, we do not regularly monitor what our influencers post, and if we were held responsible for the content of their posts, we could be forced to alter our practices, which could have material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Because a significant portion of our revenue is derived from our mattress products, a decrease in sales of such products could seriously harm our profitability and financial condition.

        While we have expanded and continue to expand our product and services offerings, a significant portion of our business consists primarily of designing and distributing our mattress products. As a result, future shifts in consumer spending away from our mattress products for any reason, including adverse economic conditions, heightened competition and decreased consumer confidence or frequency of mattress replacement, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Retailers with more diversified product offerings may not be similarly at risk. For example, department stores that experience stagnant or declining mattress sales may be better able to absorb the adverse effects given their diversity of product offerings. Our continued success will depend, in part, on our ability to anticipate, identify and respond quickly to shifts in consumer spending, as well as to strengthen our brand, incorporate a broader ecosystem of sleep products that address the entire Sleep Arc, and attract and retain customers who are willing to pay for products and services beyond our mattress offerings.

        In the near term, if the number of customers demanding our mattress products does not continue to increase, we may not achieve the level of sales necessary to support new growth platforms across the Sleep Arc, and our ability to grow our business may be severely impaired.

Our efforts to protect and maintain our intellectual property may not be successful. Competitors have attempted and will likely continue to attempt to imitate our products and technology. We may not be able to prevent competitors from developing similar products or from marketing in a manner that capitalizes on our intellectual property. If we are unable to protect or preserve our intellectual property, our business may be harmed, and if our products or marketing violate the intellectual property rights of others, we may have liability and may be required to change our products and business practices.

        Our intellectual property is important to the design, manufacturing, marketing and distribution of our products and services, and protecting our intellectual property rights and combating the unlicensed copy or use of our intellectual property can be difficult. We attempt to protect our intellectual property rights, both in the United States and abroad, through a combination of patent, trademark, copyright and trade secret laws, as well as nondisclosure and invention assignment agreements with our consultants and employees and seek to control access to, and distribution of, our proprietary information.

        Further, we license certain intellectual property from third parties. For example, while most of our product design is developed in-house, certain foam formulations are currently licensed from certain of our contract manufacturers pursuant to our manufacturing agreements with them, some of which include varying degrees of exclusivity. If any of these licenses are terminated, or if they expire and are

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not renewed, we may not be able to continue to manufacture certain products in their current iterations or may experience disruption to our manufacturing processes. Even if we retain the licenses, the licenses may no longer be exclusive with respect to such designs or technologies, which could aid our competitors and have a negative impact on our business.

        To compete effectively with other companies, we must maintain the proprietary nature of our owned and licensed intellectual property and maintain the confidentiality of our trade secrets, know-how and other proprietary materials. We have in the past and may in the future be notified of challenges to our intellectual property rights or receive notices that claim we have misappropriated, violated, or infringed upon third parties' intellectual property rights. Despite our efforts to maintain our intellectual property rights and to avoid violating the intellectual property rights of others, we cannot eliminate the following risks which could have a material adverse effect on our brand, business, financial condition, or results of operations:

        The nature and value of our intellectual property may be affected by a change in law domestically or abroad. Because of differences in foreign laws concerning proprietary rights and in light of the political and economic circumstances in certain foreign jurisdictions, our rights may not be enforced or enforceable in foreign countries or receive the same degree of protection in foreign countries as they would in the United States, even if they are validly issued or registered. Further, while we seek to protect our intellectual property outside the United States, there can be no assurance that our intellectual property will be adequately protected in all countries in which we conduct our business. For example, while we generally apply for patents in those countries where we intend to make, have made, use, or sell patented products, we may not accurately predict all of the countries where patent protection will ultimately be desirable. If we fail to timely file a patent application in any such country, we may be precluded from doing so at a later date.

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        Our inability to maintain the proprietary nature of our intellectual property, or violations of the rights of others, could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. For example, an action to enforce our intellectual property rights, or an action brought by a third party challenging our intellectual property rights, could impair our financial condition, or results of operations, either as a result of a negative ruling with respect to our use of the intellectual property of others or the validity or enforceability of our intellectual property, or through the time consumed and legal costs involved in bringing or defending such an action (and we cannot guarantee that we will have sufficient resources to adequately bring or defend any such action). Further, if a third party is successful in challenging our intellectual property rights or brings a successful claim of infringement against us, we could be required to pay significant damages, enter into costly license or royalty agreements, rebrand our products, or stop the sale of certain products, any of which could have a negative impact on our operating profits and harm our future prospects. In addition, any royalty or licensing agreements, if required, may not be available to us on acceptable terms or at all.

        As our business continues to expand, our competitors have imitated, and will likely continue to imitate, our product designs and branding, which could harm our business and results of operations While we rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, suppliers, manufacturers, visitors and others to protect our proprietary rights, the steps we take to protect our proprietary rights may be inadequate, and we may experience difficulty in effectively limiting the unauthorized use of our patents, trademarks, trade dress, trade secrets and other intellectual property and proprietary rights worldwide. It is also possible that others will independently develop technology with the same or similar function to any proprietary technology we rely on to conduct our business and differentiate ourselves from our competitors. Because some of our products are manufactured overseas in countries where counterfeiting is more prevalent, and we intend to increase our sales overseas over the long-term, we may experience increased counterfeiting of our products. Unauthorized use or invalidation of our intellectual property may cause significant damage to our brand and harm our results of operations.

We currently rely exclusively on third-party contract manufacturers whose efforts we are unable to fully control.

        Our products are produced by third-party contract manufacturers. We face the risk that these third-party contract manufacturers may not produce and deliver our products on a timely basis, or at all. We have experienced, and will likely continue to experience, operational difficulties with our manufacturers. These difficulties include reductions in the availability of production capacity, errors in complying with product specifications and customer requirements, insufficient quality control, sharing competitively sensitive information with our competitors, failure to meet production deadlines, failure to achieve our product, and packaging quality standards, inability to access new or quality materials, shipping mistakes, failure to update us on production and shipping status, increases in costs of materials, and manufacturing or other business interruptions. The ability of our manufacturers to effectively satisfy our production requirements could also be impacted by manufacturer financial difficulty or damage to their operations caused by fire, terrorist attack, natural disaster, or other events. The failure of any manufacturer to perform to our expectations could result in supply shortages or delays for certain products and harm our business. If we experience significantly increased demand, or if we need to replace an existing manufacturer due to lack of performance, we may be unable to supplement or replace our manufacturing capacity on a timely basis or on terms that are acceptable to us, which may increase our costs, reduce our margins, and harm our ability to deliver our products on time. For certain of our products, it may take a significant amount of time to identify and qualify a manufacturer that has the capability and resources to produce our products to our specifications in sufficient volume and satisfy our service and quality control standards. Our reliance on third-party manufacturers and inability to fully control any operational difficulties with our third-party

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manufacturers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our third-party manufacturers may not be able to obtain new or quality raw materials, which could result in delays and impair our ability to fulfill our orders in a timely manner.

        The capacity of our manufacturers to produce our products is also dependent upon the availability of raw materials. Our manufacturers may not be able to obtain sufficient supply of raw materials, which could result in delays in deliveries of our products by our manufacturers or increased costs. Any shortage of raw materials or inability of a manufacturer to produce or ship our products in a timely manner, or at all, could impair our ability to ship orders of our products in a cost-efficient, timely manner and could cause us to miss the delivery requirements of our customers. As a result, we could experience cancellations of orders, refusals to accept deliveries, or reductions in our prices and margins, any of which could harm our financial performance, reputation, and results of operations.

Our third-party manufacturers are subject to regulatory requirements, and it is difficult to monitor and control their compliance with such laws, rules and regulations.

        Third-party manufacturers of our products and components must comply with applicable regulatory requirements, which may require significant resources and subject our manufacturers to potential regulatory inspections, stoppages, or enforcement actions. If our manufacturers do not maintain regulatory approval for, or compliance of, their manufacturing operations, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        Additionally, we currently have third-party manufacturing partners located in various locations, including the United States, China, India, Canada, Germany, Belgium, and the United Kingdom, among others. Our ability to identify qualified manufacturers is a significant challenge, especially with respect to goods sourced outside of North America. Global sourcing and foreign trade involve numerous factors and uncertainties beyond our control including increased shipping costs, increased import duties, more restrictive quotas, loss of most favored nation trading status, currency fluctuations, work stoppages and enforcement of foreign labor laws, transportation delays, port of entry issues, economic uncertainties such as inflation, foreign government regulations, political unrest, natural disasters, war, terrorism, trade restrictions, political instability, the financial stability of vendors, quality issues, and tariffs. Moreover, negative press or reports about internationally manufactured products may sway public opinion, and thus consumer preference, away from our products.

        While our supplier guidelines promote ethical business practices such as environmental responsibility, fair wage practices, and compliance with child labor laws, among others, and we, along with a third party that we retain for this purpose, monitor compliance with those guidelines, we do not control our third-party manufacturers or their business practices. Accordingly, we cannot guarantee their compliance with our ethical business practice guidelines. A lack of demonstrated compliance with our ethical business practice guidelines could lead us to seek alternative suppliers, which could increase our costs and result in delayed delivery of our products, product shortages or other disruptions of our operations. In addition, a lack of compliance could lead to negative publicity which could damage our brand. As such, our reliance on third-party manufacturers could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Our sales growth is dependent upon our ability to implement strategic initiatives and such initiatives may not be effective in generating sales growth.

        Our ability to generate sales growth is dependent upon our ability to successfully implement strategic initiatives which we undertake. For example, one of our key strategic initiatives is to expand our retail presence. If we are not able to effectively expand within this channel, this could adversely

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impact our ability to grow our market share and build our brand strength, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        In addition, we are also pursuing other strategic initiatives, including the following:

        If we fail to execute on any of these strategic initiatives, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our growth strategy involves expansion of our retail partnerships, which presents risks and challenges to our business.

        Our retail partnerships have only recently evolved, and we have limited operating experience executing our retail strategy, which we began pursuing in 2015. This strategy has and will continue to require significant investment in cross-functional operations and management focus, along with investment in supporting technologies.

        Most of our retail partnership arrangements are by purchase order or are terminable at will with limited or no notice and since we have a limited operating history with our retail partners, we may not be able to accurately forecast their product needs and our resulting revenue. We are also exposed to the seasonality of our retail partners' businesses, which impacts their frequency and volume of product orders. A substantial decrease or interruption in business from our key retail partners could result in a reduction in net revenue, an increase in bad debt expense or the loss of future business, any of which could impair our business, financial condition, or results of operations. Further, if our retail partners seek bankruptcy protection, they could act to terminate all or a portion of their business with us or originate new business with our competitors, which could impair our results of operations. Any loss of revenue from our key retail partners, including as a result of the non-payment or late payment of our invoices, could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        Our retail partners may not have a history of selling mattresses or other sleep products, which may make it more difficult for certain retail partners to market our products effectively. Educating and training our retail partners on our products and brand may consume a significant portion of our management's time and attention, which could delay our ability to launch retail partnerships in an expedient and cost-effective manner. We also have a limited operating history with our retail partnerships, which may make it more difficult for us to onboard new retail partners.

        We may not always be able to negotiate arrangements with our retail partners that align with our pricing strategy. Retail partnership arrangements that do not align with our pricing strategy in our other sales channels may result in lower sales in our direct-to-consumer channels, which may be more profitable.

        In addition, our retail partners may reduce their number of stores or operations or consolidate, undergo restructurings or reorganizations, realign their affiliations or promote products of our competitors over ours or liquidate. These events may result in a decrease in the number of stores or e-commerce platforms that carry our products, an increase in the ownership concentration in the retail industry and/or our being required to record significant bad debt expense and write-offs. Our retail

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partners may also decide to carry only a limited number of brands of sleep products, which could affect our ability to sell our products to them on favorable terms, if at all. If any of our key retail partners experience financial difficulty or insolvency, we may experience reduced sales of our products or we could have difficulty recovering amounts owed to us from these retail partners, resulting in lower revenue and gross margins, which could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our business is subject to the risk of manufacturer and supplier concentrations.

        We depend on a limited number of third-party contract manufacturers for the sourcing of our products. For our mattresses, our two largest manufacturers comprised over 70% of our production volume during the nine months ended September 30, 2019. Further, consolidation among foam suppliers, which is a key component for our mattresses, and mattress fabricators has resulted in a decrease in the number of possible domestic suppliers from which we can source foam and mattress fabrication, as well as an increase in the threat of increased prices and less favorable commercial terms. As a result of these concentrations in our manufacturing and supply chains, our business and operations would be negatively affected if any of our key manufacturers or suppliers were to experience significant disruption affecting the price, quality, availability, or timely delivery of products. The partial or complete loss of any of these manufacturers or suppliers, or a significant adverse change in our relationship with any of these manufacturers or suppliers, could result in lost sales, added costs, and distribution delays that could harm our business and customer relationships. Further, we may incur significant management time and attention to replace and validate new manufacturers and suppliers, which could further harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our business could be harmed if we fail to execute our internal plans to transition our supply chain and certain other business processes to a global scale.

        We are in the process of building and re-engineering certain of our supply chain management processes, as well as certain other business processes, to support our expanding scale. This expansion to a global scale requires significant investment of capital and human resources, the re-engineering of many business processes, and the attention of many managers and other employees who would otherwise be focused on other aspects of our business. If our globalization efforts fail to produce planned efficiencies, or the transition is not managed effectively, we may experience excess inventories, inventory shortage, late deliveries, lost sales, or increased costs. We also are pursuing a strategy to vertically integrate. If we are not successful in pursuing this strategy, or if there is any business disruption arising from our globalization efforts, or our failure to effectively execute our internal plans for globalization or vertical integration, our results of operations and our financial condition could be harmed.

Our third-party manufacturers may breach our manufacturing agreements, most of which are not exclusive such that these manufacturers could produce similar products for our competitors.

        We have contracts with a significant amount of our manufacturers and utilize purchase orders with our manufacturers. Manufacturers with whom we have contracts may breach these agreements, and we may not be able to enforce our rights under these agreements or may incur significant costs attempting to do so. As a result, we cannot predict with certainty our ability to obtain products in adequate quantities, of required quality and at acceptable prices from our suppliers and manufacturers in the future. Any one of these risks could harm our ability to deliver our products on time, or at all, damage our reputation and our relationships with our retail partners and customers, and increase our product costs thereby reducing our margins.

        In addition, most of our arrangements with our manufacturers are not exclusive. As a result, certain of our manufacturers could produce similar products for our competitors. Further, while certain

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of our contracts include certain exclusivity arrangements, those manufacturers could choose to breach our agreements and work with our competitors, and we may not become aware of such breaches or have remedies against the manufacturer for such breaches. Our competitors could enter into restrictive or exclusive arrangements with our manufacturers that could impair or eliminate our access to manufacturing capacity. Our manufacturers could also be acquired by our competitors, and may become our direct competitors, thus limiting or eliminating our access to manufacturing capacity.

Some of our products are manufactured by third parties outside of the United States, and our business may be harmed by legal, regulatory, economic, and political risks associated with international trade and those markets.

        Some of our products are manufactured in various locations, including among others, the United States, China, India, Canada, Germany, Belgium, and the United Kingdom. Our reliance on suppliers and manufacturers in foreign markets creates risks inherent in doing business in foreign jurisdictions, including: (i) the burdens of complying with a variety of foreign laws and regulations, including trade and labor restrictions and laws relating to the importation and taxation of goods; (ii) weaker protection for intellectual property and other legal rights than in the United States, and practical difficulties in enforcing intellectual property and other rights outside of the United States; (iii) compliance with U.S. and foreign laws relating to foreign operations, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, or FCPA, the UK Bribery Act 2010, or the Bribery Act, regulations of the U.S. Office of Foreign Assets Controls, or OFAC, and U.S. anti-money laundering regulations, collectively which, among other things, prohibit U.S. companies from making improper payments to foreign officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business, operating in certain countries, as well as engaging in other corrupt and illegal practices; (iv) economic and political instability and acts of terrorism in the countries where our suppliers are located; (v) transportation interruptions or increases in transportation costs; (vi) the imposition of tariffs on components and products that we import into the United States or other markets; and (vii) foreign currency fluctuations. We cannot assure you that our directors, officers, employees, representatives, manufacturers, or suppliers have not engaged and will not engage in illegal or impermissible conduct for which we may be held responsible, nor can we assure you that our manufacturers, suppliers, or other business partners have not engaged and will not engage in conduct that could materially harm their ability to perform their contractual obligations to us or even result in our being held liable for such conduct. Violations of the FCPA, the Bribery Act, OFAC restrictions, or other export control, anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, and anti-terrorism laws or regulations may result in severe criminal or civil sanctions, and we may be subject to other related liabilities, which could harm our business, financial condition, cash flows, and results of operations.

If tariffs or other restrictions are placed on foreign imports or any related counter-measures are taken by other countries, our business and results of operations could be harmed.

        The Trump Administration has put into place tariffs and other trade restrictions and signaled that it may additionally alter trade agreements and terms between the United States and China, the European Union, Canada, and Mexico, among others, including limiting trade and/or imposing tariffs on imports from such countries. In addition, China, the European Union, Canada, and Mexico, among others, have either threatened to or put into place retaliatory tariffs of their own. If tariffs or other restrictions are placed on foreign imports, including on any of our products manufactured overseas for sale in the United States, or any related counter-measures are taken by other countries, our business and results of operations may be materially harmed.

        These tariffs have the potential to significantly raise the cost of our products. In such a case, there can be no assurance that we will be able to shift manufacturing and supply agreements to non-impacted countries, including the United States, to reduce the effects of the tariffs. As a result, we may suffer margin erosion or be required to raise our prices, which may result in the loss of customers, negatively

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impact our results of operations, or otherwise harm our business. In addition, the imposition of tariffs on products that we export to international markets could make such products more expensive compared to those of our competitors if we pass related additional costs on to our customers, which may also result in the loss of customers, negatively impact our results of operations, or otherwise harm our business.

We rely on third-party contract manufacturers and third-party distributors, and if we fail to timely and effectively obtain shipments of products from our manufacturers and deliver products to our retail partners and customers, our business and results of operations could be harmed.

        Our business depends on our ability to source and distribute products in a timely manner, and we rely on third-party manufacturers, distributors, and distribution centers to do so. In part because we utilize third-party distributors, we cannot control all of the factors that might affect the timely and effective procurement of our products from our third-party contract manufacturers and the delivery of our products to our retail stores, retail partners and customers, including (i) lack of day-to-day control over the activities of third-party distributors, (ii) that such distributors may not fulfill their obligations to us or otherwise meet our expectations, and (iii) that third-party distributors may terminate their arrangements with us on limited or no notice or may change the terms of these arrangements in a manner unfavorable to us for reasons outside of our control. In addition, disagreements with such distributors could require or result in costly and time-consuming litigation or arbitration. Failure to timely and effectively obtain our products may result in increased shipping costs; our future revenues and market share may not grow as anticipated; we may be unable to sell, market and distribute our products in line with our long-term growth strategy; and we could be subject to other unexpected costs which could negatively impact our results of operations or otherwise harm our business.

        In addition, our third-party contract manufacturers ship most of our products to our third-party distribution centers in the United States, Canada and Europe. We import our products, and we are also vulnerable to risks associated with products manufactured abroad, including: (i) risks of damage, destruction, or confiscation of products while in transit to our distribution centers; and (ii) transportation and other delays in shipments, including as a result of heightened security screening, port congestion, and inspection processes or other port-of-entry limitations or restrictions in the United States. In order to meet demand for a product, we have chosen in the past, and may choose in the future, to arrange for additional quantities of the product, if available, to be delivered through air freight, which is significantly more expensive than standard shipping by sea and, consequently, could harm our gross margins. Failure to procure our products from our third-party contract manufacturers and deliver merchandise to our retail partners and direct-to-consumer channels in a timely, effective, and economically viable manner could reduce our sales and gross margins, damage our brand, and harm our business.

        We also rely on the timely and free flow of goods through open and operational ports from our suppliers and manufacturers. Labor disputes or disruptions at ports, our common carriers, or our suppliers or manufacturers could create significant risks for our business, particularly if these disputes result in work slowdowns, lockouts, strikes, or other disruptions during periods of significant importing or manufacturing, potentially resulting in delayed or cancelled orders by customers, unanticipated inventory accumulation or shortages, and harm to our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

        In addition, we rely upon independent land-based and air freight carriers for product shipments from our distribution centers to our retail stores, retail partners and customers who purchase through our direct-to-consumer channel. We may not be able to obtain sufficient freight capacity on a timely basis or at favorable shipping rates and, therefore, may not be able to receive products from suppliers or deliver products to retail partners or customers in a timely and cost-effective manner.

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        Accordingly, we are subject to a variety of risks, including labor disputes, union organizing activity, inclement weather, and increased transportation costs, associated with our third-party contract manufacturers' and carriers' ability to provide products and services to meet our requirements. In addition, if the cost of fuel rises, the cost to deliver products may rise, and could harm our profitability.

Our business depends heavily on our ability to provide our customers with a joyful, seamless, and personalized purchasing experience that is different from our competitors.

        Our customer experience is focused on providing our customers with a seamless and personalized consultative experience around sleep. We believe that our customer-first approach has significantly contributed to the popularity of our products and continues to distinguish us in an increasingly competitive industry. Our competitors have in the past and may in the future attempt to replicate features of our customer experience, such as our in-store and 100-night mattress trials and our bed-in-a-box packaging, to attract new customers and/or retain existing ones. Since we may not have proprietary rights to such features of our customer experience, we will need to commit significant resources towards continually enhancing and differentiating our customer experience and anticipating and meeting our customers' evolving preferences and expectations. Our failure to successfully innovate and continue to deliver a superior customer experience, could cause the demand for our products to decrease, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We depend on our retail partners to display and present our products to customers, and our failure to maintain and further develop our relationships with our retail partners could harm our business.

        A portion of our sales are through our retail partners. Our relationships with these retail partners are important to the authenticity of our brand and the marketing programs we continue to deploy. Our failure to maintain these relationships with our partners or financial difficulties experienced by these partners could harm our business.

        We have partnerships with Amazon, Costco, Hudson's Bay Company, and Target, among others. If we lose a key partner or a key partner reduces its purchases of our existing or new products or its number of stores or operations or promotes products of our competitors over ours, our sales would be harmed. Because we are a premium brand, our sales depend, in part, on our partners marketing and effectively displaying our products, including providing attractive space and point of purchase displays in their physical retail stores or, with respect to their e-commerce platform, providing attractive digital space to display our products. Our sales also depend on our partners training their sales personnel to sell our products. We may not have control over how they market our product, including the amount of money they spend advertising our products, whether they market our products consistent with our brand philosophy and/or whether they display our products in a manner that appeals to consumers. If our partners reduce or terminate those activities, we may experience reduced sales of our products, resulting in lower gross margins, which would harm our results of operations.

General business and economic conditions could reduce our sales and profitability, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        Our business is affected by general business and economic conditions. The global economy has in the past, and will in the future, experience recessionary periods and periods of economic instability. During such periods, consumers may shift to lower priced goods for non-discretionary purchases and/or may reduce their overall spending on discretionary purchases. For example, during a recessionary period, sales of our premium mattresses may decline while sales of our entry-level mattresses may increase as customers shift to lower cost goods, which could result in lower sales revenue. Alternatively, customers may choose to hold onto their mattresses for a longer period of time or purchase cheaper mattresses from our competitors, which may also result in lower sales.

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        There could be a number of other effects from adverse general business and economic conditions on our business, including reduced consumer demand for our sleep products; insolvency of our key manufacturers resulting in product delays; inability of retailers and customers to obtain credit to finance purchases of our products; decreased consumer confidence; decreased discretional spending; decreased retail demand, including order delays or cancellations; counterparty failures; and adverse movements in foreign currency exchange rates. If such conditions are experienced in future periods, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        In addition, we maintain certain levels of inventory of our products. Changing worldwide business and economic conditions and market volatility may make it difficult for us, our customers, and our manufacturers to accurately forecast future product demand trends, which could result in excess inventory and increase our carrying costs. Alternatively, this forecasting difficulty could cause a shortage of inventory of our products that could result in an inability to satisfy demand for our products and a loss of market share, which could also have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

System interruptions that impair customer access to our website or other performance failures in our technology infrastructure could damage our business, reputation and brand and substantially harm our business and results of operations.

        The satisfactory performance, reliability and availability of our website, transaction processing systems and technology infrastructure are critical to our reputation and our ability to acquire and retain customers, as well as maintain adequate customer service levels. Any compromise of our or our third-party partners' security could result in a violation of applicable security, privacy or data protection, consumer and other laws, regulatory or other governmental investigations, enforcement actions, and legal and financial exposure, including potential contractual liability.

        We currently utilize Amazon Web Services, or AWS, data center hosting facilities. If our main data center, which is located in the Eastern United States, where substantially all of our computer and communications hardware is located fails, or if we suffer an interruption or degradation of services at our main data center, we could lose customer data and miss order fulfillment deadlines, which could harm our business. We do not have control over the operations of the facilities of AWS that we use. AWS' facilities are vulnerable to damage or interruption from earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, fires, cyber security attacks, terrorist attacks, power losses, telecommunications failures and similar events. In the event that AWS' or any other third-party provider's systems or service abilities are hindered by any of the events discussed above, our ability to operate may be impaired, resulting in missing financial targets for a particular period. A decision to close the facilities without adequate notice, or other unanticipated problems, could adversely impact our operations. All of the aforementioned risks may be augmented if our or the third-party provider's business continuity and disaster recovery plans prove to be inadequate. The facilities also could be subject to break-ins, computer viruses, sabotage, intentional acts of vandalism and other misconduct. We may not be able to easily switch our AWS operations to another cloud or other data center provider if there are disruptions or interference with our use of AWS, and, even if we do switch our operations, other cloud and data center providers are subject to the same risks. Any security breach, including personal data breaches, or incident, including cybersecurity incidents, that we experience could result in unauthorized access to, misuse of or unauthorized acquisition of our or our customers' data, the loss, corruption, or alteration of this data, interruptions in our operations or damage to our computer hardware or systems or those of our customers. Moreover, negative publicity arising from these types of disruptions could damage our reputation. We may not carry sufficient business interruption insurance to compensate us for losses that may occur as a result of any events that cause interruptions in our service.

        AWS does not have an obligation to renew its agreements with us on commercially reasonable terms, or at all. If we are unable to renew our agreements on commercially reasonable terms, our

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agreements are prematurely terminated, or we add additional infrastructure providers, we may experience costs or downtime in connection with the transfer to, or the addition of, new data center providers. We do not currently have a back-up system configured in the event of a failure of our main data center.

        We use complex proprietary software in our technology infrastructure, which we seek to continually update and improve. For instance, we are currently planning to transition our enterprise resource planning, or ERP, applications from a third-party host to our AWS account and certain other internally developed software to third-party solutions. Replacing such systems is often time consuming and expensive, and can also be intrusive to daily business operations. Further, we may not always be successful in executing these upgrades and improvements, which may occasionally result in a failure of our systems. In particular, we have in the past and may in the future experience slowdowns or interruptions in our website when we are updating it, and new technologies or infrastructure may not be fully integrated with our existing systems on a timely basis, or at all. Additionally, if we expand our use of third-party services, including cloud-based services, our technology infrastructure may be subject to increased risk of slowdown or interruption as a result of integration with such services and/or failures by such third parties, which are out of our control. Our net revenue is comprised of global sales through our direct-to-consumer channel and our retail partnerships, and net revenue depends on the number of visitors who shop on our website and in our retail stores, the number of orders received from retail partners and the volume of orders we can handle. Unavailability of our website, our payment systems or reduced order fulfillment performance would reduce the volume of goods sold and could also materially adversely affect consumer perception of our brand. We may experience periodic system interruptions from time to time. In addition, continued growth in our transaction volume, as well as surges in online traffic and orders associated with promotional activities or seasonal trends in our business, place additional demands on our technology platform and could cause or exacerbate slowdowns or interruptions. If there is a substantial increase in the volume of traffic on our website or the number of orders placed by customers, we will be required to further expand and upgrade our technology, transaction processing systems and network infrastructure. There can be no assurance that we will be able to accurately project the rate or timing of increases, if any, in the use of our website or expand and upgrade our systems and infrastructure to accommodate such increases on a timely basis. In order to remain competitive, we must continue to enhance and improve the responsiveness, functionality and features of our website, which is particularly challenging given the rapid rate at which new technologies, customer preferences and expectations and industry standards and practices are evolving in the e-commerce industry. Accordingly, we redesign and enhance various functions on our website on a regular basis, and we may experience instability and performance issues as a result of these changes.

        Any slowdown or failure of our website and the underlying technology infrastructure could harm our business, reputation and our ability to acquire, retain and serve our customers, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations. Our disaster recovery plan may be inadequate, and our business interruption insurance may not be sufficient to compensate us for the losses that could occur.

We are subject to fluctuations in the cost and availability of raw materials and fuel, which could increase our costs or disrupt our production.

        The key raw materials that are used for production of our mattress products are polyurethane foam, polyethylene foam, cotton, foundation constructions, fabrics and roll goods that consist of fiber, ticking and non-wovens. The key raw materials that are used for production of our non-mattress products, including our bedroom textiles, bedroom furnishings, sleep accessories and sleep technology products, include cotton, linen, steel, wood, plastic, LED lighting materials, fabrics and roll goods that consist of fiber, ticking and non-woven materials. The prices of the raw materials we use for our

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products vary based on market demand, supply dynamics and constraints in energy costs. Also, the cost of fuel to transport our products to market is subject to market conditions affecting supply and demand. Given the significance of the cost of these materials to our products, volatility in the prices of the underlying commodities and raw materials can significantly affect profitability. To the extent we are unable to absorb higher costs that are passed down to us from our manufacturers, or pass any such higher costs to our customers, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, if these materials are not available on a timely basis or at all, our manufacturers may not be able to produce our products, and our sales may decline.

We will need to improve our financial and operational systems in order to manage our growth effectively and support our increasingly complex business arrangements, and an inability to do so could harm our business and results of operations.

        To manage our growth and our increasingly complex business operations, especially as we move into new markets internationally, we will need to upgrade our operational and financial systems and procedures, improve the coordination between our various corporate functions and expand, train and manage our workforce adequately. Our efforts to manage the expansion of our operations may place a significant strain on our management personnel, systems and resources, particularly given the limited amount of financial resources and skilled employees that may be available at the time. When implementing new or changing existing processes, we may encounter transitional issues and incur substantial additional expenses. We cannot be certain that we will institute, in a timely manner or at all, the improvements to our managerial, operational, and financial systems and procedures necessary to support our anticipated increased levels of operations. Delays or problems associated with any improvement or expansion of our operational and financial systems could adversely affect our relationships with our suppliers, manufacturers, resellers and customers, harm our reputation and result in errors in our financial and other reporting, any of which could harm our business and operating results.

Increases in labor costs related to changes in employment laws and regulations could adversely impact our business.

        We are subject to a wide range of employment laws and regulations imposed by federal, state, provincial and local authorities in the countries in which we operate, especially with regard to our growing retail store operations. Our retail store operations are subject to federal, state, provincial and local laws governing such matters as minimum wages, working conditions, work scheduling, healthcare reform, paid time off, overtime pay and workers' compensation. Any legislative or regulatory changes that impact our relationship with our workforce, such as changes to minimum wage requirements or health insurance or other employee benefits mandates, could increase our expenses and adversely affect our operations. While it is our policy and practice to comply with legal and regulatory requirements and our procedures and internal controls are designed to promote such compliance, we cannot assure that all of our operations will comply with all such legal and regulatory requirements. Further, laws and regulations change over time and we may be required to incur significant expenses and/or to modify our operations in order to ensure compliance. Complying with new legislation or regulations could be time consuming and expensive, and if we are unable to offset increased labor costs related to our growing retail store operations by increased sales or improved gross margins, then this could harm our profitability or financial condition. Moreover, if we are found to be in violation of any laws or regulations, we could become subject to fines, penalties, damages or other sanctions as well as potential adverse publicity or litigation exposure. This could adversely impact our business, reputation, sales, profitability, cash flows or financial condition.

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Our business is subject to a wide variety of U.S. and foreign government laws and regulations. These laws and regulations, as well as any new or changed laws or regulations, could disrupt our operations or increase our compliance costs. Failure to comply with such laws and regulations could have a further adverse impact on our business.

        We are subject to a wide variety of laws and regulations relating to the markets in which we operate or to various aspects of our business. Laws and regulations at the foreign, federal, state and local levels frequently change, and we cannot always reasonably predict the impact from, or the ultimate cost of compliance with, future regulatory or administrative changes. Changes in law, the imposition of new or additional regulations or the enactment of any new or more stringent legislation that impacts employment and labor, trade, advertising and marketing practices, pricing, consumer credit offerings, product testing and safety, transportation and logistics, health care, tax, accounting, privacy and data security, health and safety, financial crimes and sanctions or environmental issues, among others, could require us to change the way we do business and could have a material adverse impact on our sales, profitability, cash flows and financial condition. Moreover, our production, marketing, advertising and other business practices could become the subject of proceedings before regulatory authorities or the subject of claims by other parties that could require us to alter or end those practices or adopt new practices that are not as effective or are more expensive.

        In addition, our operations are subject to federal, state, provincial and local laws and regulations relating to pollution, environmental protection, occupational health and safety and labor and employee relations. New or different laws or regulations could increase direct compliance costs for us or may cause our vendors to raise the prices they charge us because of increased compliance costs. Further, the adoption of a multi-layered regulatory approach to any one of the state or federal laws or regulations to which we are currently subject, particularly where the layers are in conflict, could require alteration of our manufacturing processes or operational parameters which may adversely impact our business. We may not be in complete compliance with all such requirements at all times and, even when we believe that we are in complete compliance, a regulatory agency may determine that we are not. Our operations could also be impacted by a number of pending legislative and regulatory proposals in the United States and other countries to address global climate change. These actions could increase costs associated with our operations, including costs for raw materials, pollution control equipment and transportation. Because it is uncertain what laws will be enacted, we cannot predict the potential impact of such laws on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        Our international operations and manufacturers are subject to foreign exchange, tariff, environmental, tax and regulatory compliance risks, among others, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. The imposition of tariffs in the jurisdictions in which our operations and manufacturers are located pursuant to trade laws and regulations can have a material adverse impact on our business by placing tariffs and tariff-rate quotas on the import or export of raw materials our facilities require for our production and raising the prices of such raw materials. We currently conduct significant operations in non-U.S. jurisdictions. For example, for the year ended December 31, 2018, 14.6% of our net revenue was generated outside of the United States. In addition to the potential increases in tariff rates, our Canadian and United Kingdom operations are subject to fluctuations in currency exchange rates, anti-dumping duties, and the potential imposition of trade restrictions and other tax increases, any of which may adversely affect our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Government regulation of the internet and e-commerce is evolving, and unfavorable changes or failure by us to comply with these regulations could substantially harm our business and results of operations.

        We are subject to general business regulations and laws as well as regulations and laws specifically governing the internet and e-commerce. Existing and future regulations and laws could impede the growth of the internet, e-commerce or mobile commerce. These regulations and laws may involve taxes,

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tariffs, privacy and data security, anti-spam, content protection, electronic contracts and communications, consumer protection and internet neutrality. It is not clear how existing laws governing issues such as property ownership, sales and other taxes, and consumer privacy apply to the internet as the vast majority of these laws were adopted prior to the advent of the internet and do not contemplate or address the unique issues raised by the internet or e-commerce. It is possible that general business regulations and laws, or those specifically governing the internet or e-commerce, may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another and may conflict with other rules or our practices. We cannot be sure that our practices have complied, comply or will comply fully with all such laws and regulations. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with any of these laws or regulations could result in damage to our reputation, a loss in business and proceedings, or actions against us by governmental entities or others. Any such proceeding or action could hurt our reputation, force us to spend significant amounts in defense of these proceedings, distract our management, increase our costs of doing business, decrease the use of our sites by customers and suppliers and may result in the imposition of monetary liability. We may also be contractually liable to indemnify and hold harmless third parties from the costs or consequences of non-compliance with any such laws or regulations. In addition, it is possible that governments of one or more countries may seek to censor content available on our website or may even attempt to completely block access to our website. Adverse legal or regulatory developments could substantially harm our business. In particular, in the event that we are restricted, in whole or in part, from operating in one or more countries, our ability to retain or increase our customer base may be adversely affected, and we may not be able to maintain or grow our net revenue and expand our business as anticipated.

Regulatory requirements related to flammability standards for mattresses may increase our product costs and increase the risk of disruption to our business.

        We are subject to a number of regulatory requirements related to flammability standards for mattress in various jurisdictions. For example, in the U.S., the federal Consumer Product Safety Commission sets flammability standards and related regulations for mattresses and mattress and foundation sets. These regulations require manufacturers to implement quality assurance programs and encourage manufacturers to conduct random testing of products. These regulations also require maintenance and retention of compliance documentation. We rely on third parties to track these requirements and retain our compliance documentation and supply chain compliance, and we are unable to control their efforts. If such third parties fail to retain compliance documentation or maintain such compliance programs, such failure could impact our business, reputation, sales, profitability, cash flows and financial condition. Moreover, these quality assurance and documentation requirements are costly to implement and maintain. If any product testing, other evidence, or regulatory inspections yield results indicating that any of our products may not meet the flammability standards, we may be required to temporarily cease production and distribution and/or to recall products from the field, and we may be subject to fines or penalties, any of which outcomes could harm our business, reputation, sales, profitability, cash flows, and financial condition.

We are subject to various advertising and marketing regulations that may result in actions against us.

        Advertising and marketing of our products are subject to regulation across various jurisdictions. For example, in the United States we are subject to regulation by the FTC under the Federal Trade Commission Act, or FTC Act. Among other things, the FTC Act prohibits unfair methods of competition and unfair false or deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce. The FTC Act also makes it illegal to disseminate or cause to be disseminated any false advertisement. The FTC routinely reviews websites to identify questionable advertising claims and practices, and competitors sometimes inform the FTC when they believe other competitors are violating the FTC Act and consumers also notify the FTC of what they believe may be wrongful advertising. The FTC may initiate a non-public investigation that focuses on our advertising claims, which usually involves non-public pre-lawsuit

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extensive formal discovery. Such an investigation may be very expensive to defend, be lengthy, and result in a publicly disclosed settlement agreement. If no settlement can be reached, the FTC may start an administrative proceeding or a federal court lawsuit against us or our principal officers. The FTC often seeks to recover from the defendants any or all of the following: (i) consumer redress in the form of monetary relief or disgorgement of profits; (ii) significant reporting requirements for several years; and (iii) injunctive relief. In addition, most, if not all, states have statutes prohibiting deceptive and unfair acts and practices, and the requirements under these state statutes are similar to those of the FTC Act.

We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly results of operations due to seasonality and other factors, which could make sequential quarter to quarter comparison an unreliable indication of our performance.

        We have historically experienced and expect to continue to experience seasonal and quarterly fluctuations in sales and operating income. Our second and third quarter sales are typically higher than our other quarters. We attribute this seasonality principally to back-to school, home moves, and other seasonal factors, along with seasonal promotions we offer during these quarters. This seasonality means that a sequential quarter to quarter comparison may not provide a meaningful indication of our performance or how we will perform in the future.

        Other factors, many of which are outside of our control, that may cause quarterly results to fluctuate include, but are not limited to:

        Any of these events could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations for the fiscal quarter in which such event occurs as well as for the entire year. Therefore, sequential period-to-period comparisons of historical quarterly operating results may not be a meaningful indicator of future performance.

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Our plans for international expansion may not be successful.

        Continued expansion into markets outside the United States is one of our key strategies for the future growth of our business. There are, however, significant costs and risks inherent in selling our products in international markets, including: (i) failure to effectively translate and establish our core brand identity, product and experience proposition; (ii) time and difficulty in building our e-commerce platform and/or a widespread network of retail stores and retail partners; (iii) increased shipping and distribution costs, which could increase our expenses and reduce our margins; (iv) potentially lower margins; (v) longer collection cycles in some regions; (vi) increased competition from local providers of similar products; (vii) compliance with local laws and regulations, including taxes and duties, labor laws, and enhanced privacy laws, rules, and regulations, particularly in the European Union; (viii) establishing and maintaining effective internal controls at foreign locations and the associated increased costs; (ix) increased counterfeiting and the uncertainty of protection for intellectual property rights in some countries and practical difficulties of enforcing rights abroad; (x) compliance with anti-bribery, anti-corruption, economic sanctions, and anti-money laundering laws, such as the FCPA, the Bribery Act, and OFAC regulations, by us, our employees, and our business partners; (xi) currency exchange rate fluctuations and related effects on our results of operations; (xii) economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in foreign economies and markets; (m) compliance with tax, employment, immigration, and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad; (xiii) workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the United States; (xiv) business interruptions resulting from geopolitical actions, including war and terrorism, or natural disasters, including earthquakes, typhoons, floods, and fires; (xv) the imposition of tariffs on products that we import into international markets that could make such products more expensive compared to those of our competitors; (xvi) that our ability to expand internationally could be impacted by the intellectual property rights of third parties that conflict with or are superior to ours; (xvii) our inability to find suitable mergers and acquisitions targets to help expand our business abroad; (xviii) sharing of data and information across borders; and (xix) other costs and risks of doing business internationally.

        These and other factors could harm our international operations and, consequently, harm our business, results of operations and financial condition. Further, we may incur significant operating expenses as a result of our planned international expansion, and it may not be successful. We have limited experience with regulatory environments and market practices internationally, and we may not be able to penetrate or successfully operate in new markets. We may also encounter difficulty expanding into international markets because of limited brand recognition, leading to delayed or limited acceptance of our products by customers in these markets, and increased marketing and customer acquisition costs to establish our brand. Accordingly, if we are unable to successfully expand internationally or manage the complexity of our global operations, we may not achieve the expected benefits of this expansion and our financial condition, and results of operations could be harmed.

Our business may be adversely affected if we are unable to provide consumers a cost-effective shopping platform that is able to respond and adapt to rapid changes in technology.

        The number of people who access the internet through devices other than personal computers, including mobile phones, smartphones, handheld computers such as notebooks and tablets, video game consoles, and television set-top devices, has increased dramatically in the past few years. A significant amount of our sales are made through mobile and other handheld devices. The smaller screen size, functionality, and memory associated with some alternative devices may make the use of our sites and purchasing our products more difficult. The versions of our sites developed for these devices may not be compelling to customers. In addition, it is time consuming and costly to keep pace with rapidly changing and continuously evolving technology.

        While our website is currently mobile-optimized, as new mobile devices and platforms are released, it is difficult to predict the problems we may encounter in developing applications for alternative

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devices and platforms, and we may need to devote significant resources to the creation, support and maintenance of such applications. If we are unable to attract customers to our website through these devices or are slow to develop a version of our website that is more compatible with alternative devices or a mobile application, we may fail to capture a significant share of customers in the markets in which we operate, which could adversely affect our business.

        Further, we continually upgrade existing technologies and business applications, and we may be required to implement new technologies or business applications in the future. The implementation of upgrades and changes requires significant investments. Our results of operations may be affected by the timing, effectiveness and costs associated with the successful implementation of any upgrades or changes to our systems and infrastructure. In the event that it is more difficult for our customers to buy products from us on their mobile devices, or if our customers choose not to buy products from us on their mobile devices or to use mobile products that do not offer access to our websites, our customer growth could be harmed and our business, financial condition, and operating results may be materially adversely affected.

We rely significantly on information technology, or IT, and any failure, inadequacy, interruption or security lapse of that technology, or any failure by us or our service providers to adequately protect our or third-party information assets from cyber-based attacks or other incidents could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        Our ability to effectively manage our business depends significantly on our IT systems. The failure of our current systems, including our main operating system, JD Edwards, or future upgrades, to operate effectively or to integrate with other systems, or a breach in security of these systems could cause reduced efficiency or result in a shutdown of our operations, and remediation of any such failure, problem or breach could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        We are increasingly dependent on IT, including the internet, for the storage, processing, and transmission of electronic, business-related, information assets of ours, our customers and suppliers. We leverage our internal IT infrastructures, and those of our service providers, to enable, sustain, and support our business interests. In the event that we or our service providers are unable to prevent, detect, and remediate cyber-based attacks, computer viruses, breaches of customer privacy or other security incidents in a timely manner, our operations could be disrupted or we could incur financial, legal or reputational losses arising from misappropriation, misuse, leakage, falsification or intentional or accidental release or loss of information maintained in our information systems and networks, including personal information of our employees and our customers. Furthermore, any compromise of our or our third-party partners' security could result in a violation of applicable security, privacy or data protection, consumer and other laws, regulatory or other governmental investigations, enforcement actions, and legal and financial exposure, including potential contractual liability. In addition, outside parties may attempt to fraudulently induce our employees or employees of our vendors to disclose sensitive information in order to gain access to our data. Like other companies, we have on occasion and will continue to experience, threats to our data and systems such as phishing, malware and distributed denial-of-service attacks and attacks to our e-commerce order technology, although no such attack has had a material impact on our operations. The number and complexity of these threats continue to increase over time. Although we develop and maintain systems and controls designed to prevent these events from occurring, and we have a process to identify and mitigate threats, the development, and maintenance of these systems, controls, and processes require ongoing monitoring and updating as technologies change and efforts to overcome security measures become more sophisticated. Despite our efforts, the possibility of these events occurring cannot be eliminated entirely.

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        Further, we house many of our systems offsite at a third-party data center in the Eastern United States. Our data center may likewise be subject to cyber-attacks or other technology-related incidents, and also break-ins, sabotage and intentional acts of vandalism that could cause disruptions in our ability to serve our customers and protect data. Some of our systems are not fully redundant, and our disaster recovery planning cannot account for all eventualities. The occurrence of a natural disaster, intentional sabotage or other anticipated problems could result in lengthy interruptions to our service. Any errors or vulnerability in our systems or damage to or failure of our systems, or a third-party data center hosting our data, could result in interruptions in our operations and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. Security breaches and other security incidents, including any breaches of our security measures or those of parties with whom we have commercial relationships (e.g., third-party data centers) that result in the unauthorized access of our customers' confidential, proprietary or personal data, or the belief that any of these have occurred, could damage our reputation and expose us to a risk of loss or litigation and possible liability.

Failure to comply with federal, state and foreign laws and regulations relating to privacy, data protection and consumer protection, or the expansion of current or the enactment of new laws or regulations relating to privacy, data protection and consumer protection, could adversely affect our business and our financial condition.

        A variety of federal, state and foreign laws and regulations govern the collection, use, retention, sharing and security of consumer data. Laws and regulations relating to privacy, data protection and consumer protection are evolving and subject to potentially differing interpretations. These requirements may be interpreted and applied in a manner that is inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another or may conflict with other rules or our practices. As a result, our practices may not have complied or may not comply in the future with all such laws, regulations, requirements and obligations. Any failure, or perceived failure, by us to comply with any federal, state or foreign privacy or consumer protection-related laws, regulations, industry self-regulatory principles, industry standards or codes of conduct, regulatory guidance, orders to which we may be subject or other legal obligations relating to privacy or consumer protection could adversely affect our reputation, brand and business, and may result in claims, investigations, proceedings or actions against us by governmental entities or others or other liabilities or require us to change our operations and/or cease using certain data sets.

        We collect, store, process, and use personal information and other customer data, and we rely on third parties that are not directly under our control to manage certain of these operations and to collect, store, process and use payment information. Our customers' personal information may include names, addresses, phone numbers, email addresses, payment card data, and payment account information, as well as other information. Due to the volume and sensitivity of the personal information and data we and these third parties manage, the security features of our information systems are critical. If our security measures, some of which are managed by third parties, are breached or fail, unauthorized persons may be able to access sensitive customer data, including payment card data. If we or our independent service providers or business partners experience a breach of systems that collect, store or process our customers' sensitive data, our brand could be harmed, sales of our products could decrease, and we could be exposed to claims, losses, administrative fines, litigation or regulatory and governmental investigations and proceedings. Any such claim, investigation, proceeding or action could hurt our reputation, brand and business, force us to incur significant expenses in defense of such proceedings, distract our management, increase our costs of doing business, result in a loss of customers and suppliers and may result in the imposition of monetary penalties and administrative fines. Depending on the nature of the information compromised, we may also have obligations to notify users, law enforcement, or payment companies about the incident and may need to provide some form of remedy, such as refunds, for the individuals affected by the incident.

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        Federal, state and foreign governmental authorities continue to evaluate the privacy implications inherent in the use of third-party "cookies" and other methods of online tracking for behavioral advertising and other purposes. U.S. and foreign governments have enacted, have considered or are considering legislation or regulations that could significantly restrict the ability of companies and individuals to engage in these activities, such as by regulating the level of consumer notice and consent required before a company can employ cookies or other electronic tracking tools or the use of data gathered with such tools. For example, the GDPR (as defined below) also imposes additional conditions in order to satisfy such consent, such as a prohibition on pre-checked consent tick boxes and on bundled consents thereby requiring customers to affirmatively consent for a given purpose through separate tick boxes or other affirmative action. Additionally, some providers of consumer devices and web browsers have implemented, or announced plans to implement, means to make it easier for internet users to prevent the placement of cookies or to block other tracking technologies, which could if widely adopted result in the use of third-party cookies and other methods of online tracking becoming significantly less effective. The regulation of the use of these cookies and other current online tracking and advertising practices or a loss in our ability to make effective use of services that employ such technologies could increase our costs of operations and limit our ability to acquire new customers on cost-effective terms and consequently, materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

        As we expand internationally, we will be subject to additional privacy rules, many of which, such as the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation, or the GDPR (which went into effect on May 25, 2018), and national laws supplementing the GDPR (such as in the United Kingdom, the Data Protection Act 2018) are significantly more stringent than those currently enforced in the United States. The law requires companies to meet stringent requirements regarding the handling of personal data of individuals located in the European Economic Area, or EEA. These more stringent requirements include expanded disclosures to inform customers about how we may use their personal data through external privacy notices, increased controls on profiling customers and increased rights for data subjects (including customers and employees) to access, control and delete their personal data. In addition, there are mandatory data breach notification requirements. The law also includes significant penalties for non-compliance, which may result in monetary penalties of up to the higher of €20 million or 4% of a group's worldwide turnover for the preceding financial year for the most serious violations (as well as the right to compensation for financial or non-financial damages claimed by any individuals under Article 82 GDPR). The GDPR and other similar regulations require companies to give specific types of notice and informed consent is required for the placement of a cookie or similar technologies on a user's device for online tracking for behavioral advertising and other purposes and for direct electronic marketing, and the GDPR also imposes additional conditions in order to satisfy such consent, such as a prohibition on pre-checked tick boxes and bundled consents, thereby requiring customers to affirmatively consent for a given purpose through separate tick boxes or other affirmative action. In addition, the United Kingdom leaving the European Union could also lead to further legislative and regulatory changes by the planned exit date of January 31, 2020. It remains unclear how the United Kingdom data protection laws or regulations will develop in the medium to longer term and how data transfer to the United Kingdom from the European Union will be regulated, especially if the United Kingdom leaves the European Union without a deal. However, the United Kingdom has transposed the GDPR into domestic law with the Data Protection Act 2018 which will remain in force, even if and when the United Kingdom leaves the EU.

        Privacy laws, rules, and regulations are constantly evolving in the United States and abroad and may be inconsistent from one jurisdiction to another. Cultural norms around privacy or data protection also vary country to country and can drive a need to localize or customize our product in order to address varied privacy or data protection concerns, which can add cost and time to our development. We expect that new industry standards, laws and regulations will continue to be proposed regarding privacy, data protection and information security in many jurisdictions, including the California

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Consumer Privacy Act, which went into effect on January 1, 2020. We cannot yet determine the impact such future laws, regulations and standards may have on our business. Complying with these evolving obligations is costly. For instance, expanding definitions and interpretations of what constitutes "personal data" (or the equivalent) within the EEA, the United States and elsewhere may increase our compliance costs. Any failure to comply could give rise to unwanted media attention and other negative publicity, damage our customer and consumer relationships and reputation, and result in lost sales, claims, administrative fines, lawsuits or regulatory and governmental investigations and proceedings and may harm our business and results of operations.

        Outside of the United States, the United Kingdom and the EEA, there are many countries with data protection laws, and new countries are adopting data protection legislation with increasing frequency. Many of these laws may require consent from customers for the use of data for various purposes, including marketing, which may reduce our ability to market our products. There is no harmonized approach to these laws and regulations globally. Consequently, we increase our risk of non-compliance with applicable foreign data protection laws and regulations as we continue our international expansion. We may need to change and limit the way we use personal information in operating our business and may have difficulty maintaining a single operating model that is compliant. Compliance with such laws and regulations will result in additional costs and may necessitate changes to our business practices and divergent operating models, limit the effectiveness of our marketing activities, adversely affect our business and financial condition, and subject us to additional liabilities.

        In addition, various federal, state and foreign legislative and regulatory bodies, or self-regulatory organizations, may expand current laws or regulations, enact new laws or regulations or issue revised rules or guidance regarding privacy, data protection and consumer protection. For example, in the European Union the ePrivacy Directive (which amongst other matters, regulates the use of cookies and other similar technologies) will be replaced by an EU regulation known as the ePrivacy Regulation, which is still under development and will soon replace current national laws that implement the ePrivacy Directive. The draft ePrivacy Regulation retains the GDPR's additional consent conditions and also imposes strict opt-in marketing rules on direct marketing that is "presented" on a web page rather than sent by email, alters rules on third-party cookies and similar technology and significantly increases penalties for breach of the rules. As the text of the ePrivacy Regulation is still under development and currently in draft form, and as further guidance is issued and interpretation of both the ePrivacy Regulation and the GDPR develop, it is difficult to assess the impact of the ePrivacy Regulation on our business or operations, but it may require us to modify our data practices and policies and we could incur substantial costs as a result. Further regulation and interpretation of existing regulation of cookies and similar technologies may lead to broader restrictions on our marketing and personalization activities and may negatively impact our efforts to understand users' internet usage, as well as the effectiveness of our marketing and our business generally. Such regulations may have a negative effect on businesses, including ours, that collect and use online usage information for consumer acquisition and marketing, it may increase the cost of operating a business that collects or uses such information and undertakes online marketing, it may also increase regulatory scrutiny and increase potential civil liability under data protection or consumer protection laws. Any such changes may force us to incur substantial costs or require us to change our business practices. This could compromise our ability to pursue our growth strategy effectively and may adversely affect our ability to acquire customers or otherwise harm our business, financial condition, and operating results.

We are subject to risks related to online payment methods.

        We accept payments using a variety of methods, including credit card and debit card. As we offer new payment options to customers, we may be subject to additional regulations, compliance requirements and fraud. For certain payment methods, including credit and debit cards, we pay interchange and other fees, which may increase over time and raise our operating costs and lower

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profitability. We are also subject to payment card association operating rules and certification requirements, including the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard and rules governing electronic funds transfers, which could change or be reinterpreted to make it difficult or impossible for us to comply. As our business changes, we may also be subject to different rules under existing standards, which may require new assessments that involve costs above what we currently pay for compliance. If we fail to comply with the rules or requirements of any provider of a payment method we accept, if the volume of fraud in our transactions limits or terminates our rights to use payment methods we currently accept, or if a data breach occurs relating to our payment systems, we may, among other things, be subject to fines or higher transaction fees and may lose, or face restrictions placed upon, our ability to accept credit card and debit card payments from customers or facilitate other types of online payments. If any of these events were to occur, our business, financial condition, and operating results could be materially adversely affected. We occasionally receive orders placed with fraudulent credit card data. We may suffer losses as a result of orders placed with fraudulent credit card data even if the associated financial institution approved payment of the orders. Under current credit card practices, we may be liable for fraudulent credit card transactions. If we are unable to detect or control credit card fraud, our liability for these transactions could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We may not be able to attract and retain qualified key personnel. If we lose the services of these individuals or are unable to attract new talent, it could impair our ability to execute our business strategy and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

        Our success depends, in significant part, on the continued services of our executive leadership team and on our ability to attract, motivate, develop and retain a sufficient number of qualified key employees, including management, manufacturing and quality assurance, engineering, design, finance, marketing, sales and support personnel. Our executive leadership team has extensive experience in the consumer products industry, and we believe that the depth of our executive leadership team is instrumental to our continued success. The loss of any one or more members of our executive leadership team, including Philip Krim, our Chief Executive Officer, Neil Parikh, our Chief Strategy Officer, and Jeffrey Chapin, our Chief Product Officer, for any reason, including resignation or retirement, could impair our ability to execute our business strategy and have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        Competition for qualified key personnel can be strong, and we can provide no assurance that we will be successful in attracting or retaining such personnel now or in the future. Our inability to recruit, develop and retain qualified employees may result in high employee turnover and may force us to pay significantly higher wages, which may harm our profitability. Further, we do not carry key man insurance for any of our management executives, and the loss of any key employee or our inability to recruit, develop and retain these individuals as needed, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

We may face exposure to product liability claims and recalls, which could reduce our liquidity and profitability and reduce consumer confidence in our products and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        We face an inherent business risk of exposure to product liability claims if the use of any of our products results in personal injury or property damage. In the event that any of our products prove to be defective or if they are determined not to meet state or federal legal requirements or the legal requirements of other jurisdictions in which we operate, particularly in the United Kingdom and Canada, we may be required to recall or redesign those products, which could be costly and impact our profitability. Further, because we do not manufacture our products, we are partially dependent on our manufacturers to maintain our high standards of quality. The insurance we maintain against product

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liability claims may not continue to be available on terms acceptable to us and such coverage may not be adequate to cover the types of liabilities actually incurred. A successful claim brought against us, if not fully covered by available insurance coverage or any claim or product recall that results in significant adverse publicity against us and damage our reputation, could result in customers purchasing fewer of our products and could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

An increase in our return rates beyond historical levels could have a material adverse effect on our revenue, cash flows and reputation.

        Our return rates may not remain within our historical levels. An increase in return rates could significantly impair our liquidity and profitability. We currently offer trial periods of up to 100 nights on our mattresses, bedroom textiles and pillows, which allow customers to return any of these products if they are not satisfied on or prior to the expiration of the 100-night period. In addition, we offer a 30-day trial policy on most other product lines. Although historical costs to us of honoring returns during offered trial periods have been within management's expectations, we have released new products in recent years that are fairly early in their product life cycles, and the return rates for such new products may not align with our expectations. If we have higher than expected return rates, our revenue could be materially adversely impacted.

Our current and future products may experience quality problems from time to time that can result in warranty claims which may decrease our operating margin.

        Our mattresses and other sleep products generally offer a limited manufacturer's warranty against certain types of defects, or Limited Warranty, of 20 years or less, with our mattresses having a Limited Warranty of 10 years and our adjustable bed frames having a Limited Warranty of 20 years. Although we extensively and rigorously test new and enhanced products, there can be no assurance we will be able to detect, prevent, or fix all defects. Because certain of our products have not been in use by our customers for the full warranty period, we have limited information with which to evaluate the likelihood and magnitude of a potential warranty claim. The manufacturers of our mattresses and other sleep products are generally contractually obligated to cover warranty claims we submit to them. If, however, the actual amount of warranty claims we submit to manufacturers exceeds the amount of warranty claims the manufacturers are willing or able to cover, we may have to pay the incremental amount of such claims, which would decrease our operating margin.

Any acquisitions, partnerships or joint ventures that we enter into could disrupt our operations, and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        From time to time, we may evaluate potential strategic acquisitions of businesses, including partnerships or joint ventures with third parties. We may not be successful in identifying acquisition, partnership and joint venture candidates. In addition, we may not be able to continue the operational success of such businesses or successfully finance or integrate any businesses that we acquire or with which we form a partnership or joint venture. We may have potential write-offs of acquired assets and/or an impairment of any goodwill recorded as a result of acquisitions. Furthermore, the integration of any acquisition may divert management's time and resources from our core business and disrupt our operations or may result in conflicts with our business. Any acquisition, partnership or joint venture may not be successful, may reduce our cash reserves, may negatively affect our earnings and financial performance and, to the extent financed with the proceeds of debt, may increase our indebtedness. We cannot ensure that any acquisition, partnership or joint venture we make will not have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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We are currently, and may in the future, become involved in legal or regulatory proceedings and/or audits, including intellectual property rights claims, which, if resolved adversely, could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        Our business requires compliance with many laws and regulations, including intellectual property, labor and employment, sales and other taxes, customs, and consumer protection laws and ordinances that regulate retailers generally and/or govern the production, importation, promotion, and sale of merchandise, and the operation of stores and warehouse facilities. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations could subject us to lawsuits and other proceedings. The costs of supporting litigation and dispute resolution proceedings are considerable, and there can be no assurances that a favorable outcome will be obtained. We may need to settle litigation and disputes on terms that are unfavorable to us, or we may be subject to an unfavorable judgment that may not be reversible upon appeal. The terms of any settlement or judgment may require us to cease some or all of our operations or pay substantial amounts to the other party. Even if we were to prevail in such a litigation or dispute, it could be costly and time consuming and divert the attention of our management and key personnel from our business operations. During the course of any litigation or dispute, we may make announcements regarding the results of hearings and motions and other interim developments. If securities analysts and investors regard these announcements as negative, the market price of our common stock may decline. We may become involved in a number of legal proceedings and audits, including government and agency investigations, and consumer, employment, tort, and other litigation. The outcome of some of these legal proceedings, audits, and other contingencies could require us to take, or refrain from taking, actions that could harm our operations or require us to pay substantial amounts of money, harming our financial condition, and results of operations.

        From time to time, we are subject to claims, complaints or litigation based on allegations of infringement, misappropriation or other violations of intellectual property or similar rights. As we face increasing competition and gain an increasingly high profile, the possibility of intellectual property claims and other assertions against us grows. With respect to any intellectual property rights claim, we may have to seek a license to continue to sell products found to be in violation of third-party rights, which may not be available on reasonable terms and may significantly increase our operating expenses. A license to continue selling certain products may not be available to us at all, and we may be required to develop alternative non-infringing technology or discontinue product lines. The development of alternative, non-infringing technology could require significant effort and expense. Additionally, defending against these lawsuits and proceedings may be necessary, which could result in substantial costs and diversion of management's attention and resources, harming our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        As a result, any pending or future legal or regulatory proceedings and/or audits could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Our ability to raise capital in the future may be limited, and our failure to raise capital when needed could prevent us from growing.

        In the future, we could be required to raise capital through public or private financing or other arrangements. Such financing may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all, and our failure to raise capital when needed could harm our business. We may sell common stock, convertible securities and other equity securities or debt securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner as we may determine from time to time. If we sell any such securities in subsequent transactions, investors may be materially diluted.

        New investors in such subsequent transactions could gain rights, preferences and privileges senior to those of holders of our common stock. Debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants

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and could reduce our operational flexibility or profitability. If we cannot raise funds on acceptable terms, we may not be able to grow our business or respond to competitive pressures.

Our business relies heavily on email, and any restrictions on the sending of emails or an inability to timely deliver such communications could materially adversely affect our net revenue and business.

        Our business is highly dependent upon email for promoting our website and products. Periodic promotions offered through emails sent by us generate a portion of our net revenue. We provide periodic emails to customers and other visitors informing them of what is available for purchase on our website that day, and we believe these messages are an important part of our customer experience and help generate a portion of our net revenue. If we are unable to successfully deliver emails or other messages to our subscribers, or if subscribers decline to open our emails or other messages, our net revenue and profitability would be materially adversely affected. Changes in how webmail applications organize and prioritize email may reduce the number of subscribers opening our emails. For example, Google's Gmail service has a feature that organizes incoming emails into categories (for example, primary, social and promotions). Such categorization or similar inbox organizational features may result in our emails being delivered in a less prominent location in a subscriber's inbox or viewed as "spam" by our subscribers and may reduce the likelihood of that subscriber opening our emails. Actions by third parties to block, impose restrictions on or charge for the delivery of emails or other messages could also adversely impact our business. From time to time, internet service providers or other third parties may block bulk email transmissions or otherwise experience technical difficulties that result in our inability to successfully deliver emails or other messages to third parties. Changes in the laws or regulations that limit our ability to send such communications or impose additional requirements upon us in connection with sending such communications. Our use of email and other messaging services to send communications about our sites or other matters may also result in legal claims against us, which may cause us increased expenses, and if successful might result in fines and orders with costly reporting and compliance obligations or might limit or prohibit our ability to send emails or other messages. We also rely on social networking messaging services to send communications and to encourage customers to send communications. Changes to the terms of these social networking services to limit promotional communications, any restrictions that would limit our ability or our customers' ability to send communications through their services, disruptions or downtime experienced by these social networking services or decline in the use of or engagement with social networking services by customers and potential customers could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results.

Our corporate tax rate may increase, we may incur additional income tax liabilities and we may incur costs in complying with changing tax laws in the United States and abroad, which could adversely impact our cash flow, financial condition, and results of operations.

        We are subject to taxation in various jurisdictions. In preparing our financial statements, we calculate our effective income tax rate based on current tax laws and regulations and the estimated taxable income within each of these jurisdictions. Our effective income tax rate, however, may be higher due to numerous factors, including changes in tax laws or regulations, changes in our tax filing positions or the taxing authority and judicial ruling against tax positions we have claimed. For example, the U.S. government recently enacted significant tax reform, and certain provisions of the new law may adversely affect us. Changes include, but are not limited to, a federal corporate tax rate decrease to 21.0% for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, limitations on interest expense deductions, the immediate expensing of certain capital expenditures, the adoption of elements of a partially territorial tax system, new anti-base erosion provisions, a reduction to the maximum deduction allowed for U.S. federal net operating losses, or NOLs, generated in tax years after December 31, 2017 and providing for indefinite carryforwards for losses generated in tax years after December 31, 2017. The legislation is unclear in many respects and could be subject to potential amendments and technical corrections, and

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will be subject to interpretations and implementing regulations by the Treasury and Internal Revenue Service, any of which could mitigate or increase certain adverse effects of the legislation. In addition, it is unclear how these U.S. federal income tax changes will affect state and local taxation.

        Additionally, tax authorities at the foreign, federal, state and local levels are currently reviewing the appropriate treatment of companies engaged in e-commerce. New or revised foreign, federal, state or local tax regulations or court decisions may subject us or our customers to additional sales, income and other taxes. For example, on June 21, 2018, the U.S. Supreme Court rendered a 5-4 majority decision in South Dakota v. Wayfair Inc., 17-494 where the Court held, among other things, that a state may require an out-of-state seller with no physical presence in the state to collect and remit sales taxes on goods the seller ships to customers in the state, overturning existing court precedent. While we do not expect the Court's decision to have a significant impact on our business, other new or revised taxes and, in particular, sales taxes, VAT and similar taxes could increase the cost of doing business online and decrease the attractiveness of selling products over the internet. New taxes and rulings could also create significant increases in internal costs necessary to capture data and collect and remit taxes.

        Also, officials in non-U.S. jurisdictions in which we do business have proposed, or announced that they are reviewing tax increases, and other revenue raising laws and regulations. Any resulting changes in tax laws or regulations could impose new restrictions, costs or prohibitions on our current practices and reduce our net income and adversely affect our cash flows. Generally, future changes in applicable tax laws and regulations, or their interpretation and application could have an adverse effect on our business, financial conditions, and results of operations.

We may be limited in our ability to utilize, or may not be able to utilize, net operating loss carryforwards and other tax attributes to reduce our future tax liability.

        As of December 31, 2018, we had U.S. federal NOL carryforwards of approximately $157.1 million, which may be limited annually due to certain change in ownership provisions of Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, and other limitations in the Code. Our 2018 federal NOL carryforward of $64.8 million does not expire. Our federal NOL carryforwards of $92.4 million incurred prior to 2018 will begin to expire in 2035 and will completely expire in 2037. Please refer to Note 10 to our audited consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus for a further discussion of the carryforward of our NOLs and other tax attributes. As of December 31, 2018, we maintain a full valuation allowance for our deferred tax assets.

        Utilization of NOLs generated in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017 is limited to a maximum of 80% of the taxable income for such year determined without regard to the NOL deduction. In addition, "ownership changes" (generally defined as greater than 50-percentage-point cumulative changes in the equity ownership of certain stockholders over a rolling three-year period) under Section 382 of the Code may further limit our ability to utilize our pre-change NOL carryforwards and other tax attributes to reduce our taxable income in periods following the ownership changes. The issuance of common stock contemplated herein may result in an ownership change, and we may experience ownership changes in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our common stock ownership. In general, were an ownership change to occur, our ability to utilize federal NOL carryforwards would be limited annually to an amount equal to the aggregate value of our equity at the time of the ownership change multiplied by a specified tax-exempt interest rate, subject to increase by certain built-in gains. The utilization of our state NOL carryforwards may also be limited due to state tax regulations relating to ownership changes.

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Valuation allowances against our deferred tax assets could adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

        Deferred tax liabilities and assets are determined based on the difference between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates expected to be in effect during the years in which the basis differences reverse. We are required to evaluate the recoverability of our deferred tax assets regularly and establish a valuation allowance, if necessary, to reduce our deferred tax assets to an amount that is more-likely-than-not to be realizable. In determining the need for a valuation allowance, we consider many factors, including future reversals of existing taxable temporary differences, future taxable income exclusive of reversing temporary differences and carryforwards, taxable income in prior carryback years and implementation of any feasible and prudent tax planning strategies management would employ to realize the tax benefit.

        Inherent in the provision for income taxes are estimates regarding the deductibility of certain items, the timing of income and expense recognition and the current or future realization of operating losses, capital losses, certain tax credits and future enacted changes in applicable tax rates as well as the tax base. In the event these estimates differ from our prior estimates due to the receipt of new information, we may be required to significantly change the provision for income taxes recorded in the consolidated financial statements. Any such change could significantly affect the amounts reported in the consolidated financial statements in the year these estimates change. A further significant decline in value of assets incorporated into our tax planning strategies could lead to an increase of our valuation allowance on deferred tax assets having an adverse effect on current and future results.

We may need to recognize impairment charges related to identified intangible assets and fixed assets.

        We are required to test any intangible asset with an indefinite life for possible impairment on the same date each year and on an interim basis if there are indicators of a possible impairment. There is significant judgment required in the analysis of a potential impairment of identified intangible assets and fixed assets. If, as a result of a general economic slowdown or deterioration in one or more of the markets in which we operate or in our financial performance or future outlook, or if the estimated fair value of our long-lived assets decreases, we may determine that one or more of our long-lived assets is impaired. An impairment charge would be determined based on the estimated fair value of the assets and any such impairment charge could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, and results of operations.

We are subject to many hazards and operational risks that can disrupt our business, some of which may not be insured or fully covered by insurance.

        Our operations are subject to many hazards and operational risks inherent to our business, including: (i) general business risks; (ii) product liability; (iii) product recall; and (iv) damage to third parties, our infrastructure, or properties caused by fires, floods and other natural disasters, power losses, telecommunications failures, terrorist attacks, human errors, and similar events.

        Our insurance coverage may be inadequate to cover our liabilities related to such hazards or operational risks. In addition, we may not be able to maintain adequate insurance in the future at rates we consider reasonable and commercially justifiable, and insurance may not continue to be available on terms as favorable as our current arrangements. The occurrence of a significant uninsured claim, or a claim in excess of the insurance coverage limits maintained by us could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

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Terrorist attacks in the United States or against U.S. targets, actual or threatened acts of war or the escalation of current hostilities involving the United States or its allies could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

        Terrorist attacks in the United States or against U.S. targets, actual or threatened acts of war (declared or undeclared) or the escalation of current hostilities involving the United States or its allies, or any other military or trade disruptions impacting our domestic or foreign suppliers of components of our products, may impact our operations by, among other things, causing supply chain disruptions. These events could also cause an increase in oil or other commodity prices, which could adversely affect our raw materials or transportation costs. These events also could cause or act to prolong an economic recession in the United States or abroad. More generally, any of these events could cause consumer confidence and spending to decrease, which could adversely impact our product sales. Any of these occurrences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

Natural disasters, whether or not caused by climate change, unusual weather conditions, epidemic outbreaks, terrorist acts and political events could disrupt business and result in lower sales and otherwise have a material adverse effect on our business, financial performance and results of operations.

        The occurrence of one or more natural disasters, such as tornadoes, hurricanes, fires, floods and earthquakes, unusual weather conditions, epidemic outbreaks such as Ebola, Zika or measles, terrorist attacks or disruptive political events in certain regions where our retail stores, distribution centers and other facilities are located, or where our manufacturers', suppliers' and retail partners' facilities are located, could adversely affect our business and result in lower sales. Severe weather, such as heavy snowfall or extreme temperatures, may discourage or restrict customers in a particular region from traveling to our retail stores, thereby reducing our sales and profitability. Natural disasters including tornados, hurricanes, floods and earthquakes may damage our facilities or those of our suppliers or retailers or our other operations, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. To the extent these events also impact one or more of our manufacturers, suppliers, retail partners or retailers or result in the closure of the facilities of any of their facilities or our facilities, we may be unable to maintain inventory balances, maintain delivery schedules or provide other support functions to our stores. In addition, the disaster recovery and business continuity plans we have in place currently are limited and are unlikely to prove adequate in the event of a serious disaster or similar event. We may incur substantial expenses as a result of the limited nature of our disaster recovery and business continuity plans, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

We have certain indebtedness and this level of indebtedness could have a material adverse effect on our ability to generate sufficient cash to fulfill our obligations under such indebtedness, to react to changes in our business and to incur additional indebtedness to fund future needs.

        As of September 30, 2019, we had $15.9 million outstanding under the Senior Secured Facility (as defined in the section entitled "Description of Certain Indebtedness"), and $25.0 million outstanding under the Subordinated Facility (as defined in the section entitled "Description of Certain Indebtedness"), and $7.6 million of letters of credit issued pursuant to the Senior Secured Facility. Our net interest expense (excluding interest expense attributable to taxes and interest income) was $1.1 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019.

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        Our certain indebtedness, combined with our other financial obligations and contractual commitments, could have important consequences for our business. For example, it could:

        If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures, or to sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. Our ability to restructure or refinance our debt will depend on the condition of the capital markets and our financial condition at such time. Any refinancing of our debt could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants, which could further restrict our business operations. The terms of existing or future debt instruments may restrict us from adopting some of these alternatives. Any failure to make payments of interest and principal on our outstanding indebtedness on a timely basis would result in a default under our debt instruments and would allow the lenders under our Senior Secured Facility and Subordinated Facility to terminate their commitments to lend additional money or foreclose against the assets, if any, securing their borrowings, and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation. In addition, any failure to make payments on our outstanding indebtedness would likely result in a reduction of our credit rating, which could harm our ability to incur additional indebtedness. In the absence of such results of operations and resources, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations. Our Senior Secured Facility and Subordinated Facility restrict our ability to dispose of assets and use the proceeds from the disposition. We may not be able to consummate any such dispositions or to obtain the proceeds that we could realize from them and these proceeds may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations.

        In addition, indebtedness under our Subordinated Facility and Senior Secured Facility bears interest at variable rates. Because we have variable rate debt, fluctuations in interest rates may affect our business, results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows. We may attempt to minimize interest rate risk and lower our overall borrowing costs through the utilization of derivative financial instruments, primarily interest rate swaps.

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Restrictions imposed by our debt instruments may limit the ability of our subsidiaries to operate their business and to finance our future operations or capital needs or to engage in other business activities.

        The terms of our debt instruments restrict certain of our subsidiaries from engaging in specified types of transactions. These covenants restrict our ability and the ability of the borrowers and subsidiaries, among other things, to: incur additional indebtedness, pay dividends, make investments, make capital expenditures in excess of a certain amount, sell or otherwise dispose of all or any part of our business or property, engage in affiliate transactions, create liens, or consolidate or merge. Our ability to comply with these restrictions can be affected by events beyond our control, and we may not be able to maintain compliance with them. A breach of any of these covenants would be an event of default.

        Although the terms of our Subordinated Facility and Senior Secured Facility contain restrictions on the incurrence of additional indebtedness by us or our subsidiaries, as applicable, these restrictions are subject to a number of important exceptions, and indebtedness incurred in compliance with these restrictions could be substantial. If we and our subsidiaries incur significant additional indebtedness, the related risks to our financial condition could increase.

        In the event of a default under any of our current or future debt instruments, the lenders could elect to declare all amounts outstanding under such debt instruments, to be immediately due and payable or in the case of our Subordinated Facility, may terminate their commitments to lend additional money. If the indebtedness under any of our debt instruments were to be accelerated, our assets may not be sufficient to repay such indebtedness in full.

Risks Related to this Offering and Ownership of Our Common Stock

Our management team will have immediate and broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively.

        We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital, to fund growth and for other general corporate purposes, including the repayment of approximately $             million of borrowings outstanding under our Senior Secured Facility. See "Use of Proceeds." However, our management will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds. Our stockholders may not agree with the manner in which our management chooses to allocate the net proceeds from this offering and will not have the opportunity as part of their investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operation. Pending their use, we may invest the net proceeds from this offering in a manner that does not produce value. The decisions made by our management may not result in positive returns on your investment and you will not have an opportunity to evaluate the economic, financial or other information upon which our management bases its decisions.

Our common stock price may be volatile or may decline regardless of our operating performance and you may not be able to resell your shares at or above the initial public offering price.

        Prior to this offering, there has not been a public trading market for shares of our common stock. It is possible that after this offering an active trading market will not develop or continue or, if developed, that any market will be sustained, which could make it difficult for you to sell your shares of common stock at an attractive price or at all. The initial public offering price of our common stock will be determined by negotiations between us and the representatives of the underwriters based upon a number of factors and may not be indicative of prices that will prevail in the open market following the consummation of this offering. See "Underwriters." Consequently, you may not be able to sell your shares of common stock at prices equal to or greater than the price you paid in this offering.

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        Many factors, which are outside our control, may cause the market price for shares of our common stock to fluctuate significantly, including those described elsewhere in this "Risk Factors" section and this prospectus, as well as the following:

        These broad market and industry factors may materially reduce the market price of our common stock, regardless of our operating performance. In addition, price volatility may be greater if the public float and trading volume of our common stock is low. As a result, you may suffer a loss on your investment.

We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future.

        We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business and to repay indebtedness. As a result, we do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Any decision to declare and pay dividends in the future will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on, among other things, our business prospects, results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements and availability, certain restrictions related to our indebtedness, industry trends and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant. Any such decision will also be subject to compliance with contractual restrictions and covenants in the agreements governing our current and future indebtedness. In addition, we may incur additional indebtedness, the terms of which may further restrict or prevent us from paying dividends on our common stock. As a result, you may have to sell some or all of your common stock after price appreciation in order to generate cash flow from your investment, which you

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may not be able to do. Our inability or decision not to pay dividends, particularly when others in our industry have elected to do so, could also adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

The issuance by us of additional shares of common stock or convertible securities could make it difficult for another company to acquire us, may dilute your ownership of us and could adversely affect our stock price.

        In connection with this offering, we intend to file a registration statement with the SEC on Form S-8 providing for the registration of shares of our common stock issued or reserved for issuance under our long-term incentive plan. Subject to the satisfaction of vesting conditions and the expiration of lockup agreements, shares registered under the registration statement on Form S-8 will be available for resale immediately in the public market without restriction. From time to time in the future, we may also issue additional shares of our common stock or securities convertible into common stock pursuant to a variety of transactions, including acquisitions. The issuance by us of additional shares of our common stock or securities convertible into our common stock would dilute your ownership of us and the sale of a significant amount of such shares in the public market could adversely affect prevailing market prices of our common stock.

        In the future, we expect to obtain financing or to further increase our capital resources by issuing additional shares of our capital stock or offering debt or other equity securities, including senior or subordinated notes, debt securities convertible into equity, or shares of preferred stock. Issuing additional shares of our capital stock, other equity securities, or securities convertible into equity may dilute the economic and voting rights of our existing stockholders, reduce the market price of our common stock, or both. Debt securities convertible into equity could be subject to adjustments in the conversion ratio pursuant to which certain events may increase the number of equity securities issuable upon conversion. Preferred stock, if issued, could have a preference with respect to liquidating distributions or a preference with respect to dividend payments that could limit our ability to pay dividends to the holders of our common stock. Our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, which may adversely affect the amount, timing, or nature of our future offerings. As a result, holders of our common stock bear the risk that our future offerings may reduce the market price of our common stock and dilute their percentage ownership. See "Description of Capital Stock."

Future sales, or the perception of future sales, by us or our existing stockholders in the public market following this offering could cause the market price for our common stock to decline.

        The sale of substantial amounts of shares of our common stock in the public market, or the perception that such sales could occur, could harm the prevailing market price of shares of our common stock. These sales, or the possibility that these sales may occur, also might make it more difficult for us to sell equity securities in the future at a time and at a price that we deem appropriate. Upon completion of this offering, we will have a total of                    shares of our common stock outstanding. Of the outstanding shares, the shares sold or issued in this offering (or                        shares if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full) will be freely tradable without restriction or further registration under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, except that any shares held by our affiliates, as that term is defined under Rule 144 of the Securities Act, may be sold only in compliance with the limitations described in "Shares Eligible for Future Sale."

        The remaining outstanding shares of common stock held by our existing owners after this offering will be subject to certain restrictions on resale. We, our executive officers, directors and the holders of substantially all of our outstanding stock will sign lock-up agreements with the underwriters that will, subject to certain customary exceptions, restrict the sale of the shares of our common stock and certain other securities held by them for 180 days following the date of this prospectus. Morgan Stanley & Co. LLC and Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC may, in their sole discretion and at any time

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without notice, release all or any portion of the shares or securities subject to any such lock-up agreements. See "Underwriters" for a description of these lock-up agreements.

        Upon the expiration of the lock-up agreements described above, all of such shares (or         shares if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full) will be eligible for resale in a public market, subject, in the case of shares held by our affiliates, to volume, manner of sale and other described in "Shares Eligible for Future Sale."

        As restrictions on resale end, the market price of our shares of common stock could drop significantly if the holders of these restricted shares sell them or are perceived by the market as intending to sell them. These factors could also make it more difficult for us to raise additional funds through future offerings of our shares of common stock or other securities.

We are an emerging growth company, and we cannot be certain if the reduced disclosure requirements applicable to emerging growth companies will make our common stock less attractive to investors.

        We are an "emerging growth company" as defined in the JOBS Act. Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised financial accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We intend to take advantage of the extended transition period for adopting new or revised financial statements under the JOBS Act as an emerging growth company.

        We will remain an emerging growth company until the earliest of (i) the end of the fiscal year in which the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates is at least $700 million as of the last business day of our most recently completed second fiscal quarter, (ii) the end of the fiscal year in which we have total annual gross revenues of $1.07 billion or more during such fiscal year, (iii) the date on which we issue more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt in a three-year period, or (iv) the last day of the fiscal year in which the fifth anniversary of the date of this prospectus occurs.

        For as long as we continue to be an emerging growth company, we may also take advantage of other exemptions from certain reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies, including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, exemption from any rules that may be adopted by the PCAOB requiring mandatory audit firm rotations or a supplement to the auditor's report on financial statements, extended transition periods for complying with new accounting standards, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements, exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and any golden parachute arrangements, and reduced financial reporting requirements. Investors may find our common stock less attractive because we will rely on these exemptions, which could result in a less active trading market for our common stock, increased price fluctuation, and a decrease in the trading price of our common stock.

The obligations associated with being a public company will involve significant expenses and will require significant resources and management attention, which may divert from our business operations.

        As a result of this offering, we will become subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Exchange Act requires that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting. As a result, we will incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not previously incur. Additionally, most of our management team, including our Chief Executive Officer, have never managed a publicly traded company, and as a result, do not have experience in complying with the increasingly complex and changing legal and regulatory landscape in which public companies operate. Our entire management team and many of our other employees will need to devote substantial time to compliance, and may not effectively or efficiently manage our transition into a public company.

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        In addition, the need to establish the corporate infrastructure demanded of a public company may also divert management's attention from implementing our business strategy, which could prevent us from improving our business, results of operations and financial condition. We have made, and will continue to make, changes to our internal control over financial reporting, including IT controls, and procedures for financial reporting and accounting systems to meet our reporting obligations as a public company. However, the measures we take may not be sufficient to satisfy our obligations as a public company. If we do not continue to develop and implement the right processes and tools to manage our changing enterprise and maintain our culture, our ability to compete successfully and achieve our business objectives could be impaired, which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, we cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur to comply with these requirements. We anticipate that these costs will materially increase our general and administrative expenses.

        These rules and regulations result in our incurring legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance, and we may be required to accept reduced policy limits and coverage or incur substantially higher costs to obtain the same or similar coverage. As a result, it may be more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified people to serve on our board of directors, our board committees or as executive officers.

As a public reporting company, we will be subject to rules and regulations established from time to time by the SEC regarding our internal control over financial reporting. If we fail to establish and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results, or report them in a timely manner.

        Upon consummation of this offering, we will become a public reporting company subject to the rules and regulations established from time to time by the SEC and the NYSE. These rules and regulations will require, among other things that we establish and periodically evaluate procedures with respect to our internal control over financial reporting. Reporting obligations as a public company are likely to place a considerable strain on our financial and management systems, processes and controls, as well as on our personnel.

        In addition, as a public company, we will be required to document and test our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act so that our management can certify as to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. Section 404(a) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or Section 404(a), requires that beginning with our second annual report following our initial public offering, management assess and report annually on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting and identify any material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting. Although Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, or Section 404(b), requires our independent registered public accounting firm to issue an annual report that addresses the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting, we have opted to rely on the exemptions provided in the JOBS Act, and consequently will not be required to comply with SEC rules that implement Section 404(b) until such time as we are no longer an "emerging growth company." We expect our first Section 404(a) assessment will take place for our annual report for the year ending December 31, 2020. In order to comply with these rules, we expect to incur additional expenses and devote increased management effort. To maintain and improve the effectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures, we will need to commit significant resources, hire additional staff and provide additional management oversight. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we may incur as a result of becoming a public company or the timing of such costs.

        If our senior management is unable to conclude that we have effective internal control over financial reporting, or to certify the effectiveness of such controls, or if our independent registered

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public accounting firm cannot render an unqualified opinion on management's assessment and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting at such time as it is required to do so, or if material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting are identified, we could be subject to regulatory scrutiny, a loss of public and investor confidence, and to litigation from investors and stockholders, which could have a material adverse effect on our business and our stock price. In addition, if we do not maintain adequate financial and management personnel, processes and controls, we may not be able to manage our business effectively or accurately report our financial performance on a timely basis, which could cause a decline in our common stock price and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. Failure to comply with the Sarbanes-Oxley Act could potentially subject us to sanctions or investigations by the SEC, the NYSE or other regulatory authorities, which would require additional financial and management resources.

We have identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting. If we are unable to remediate this material weakness, or if we experience additional material weaknesses in the future, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations and investors may lose confidence in our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected.

        Ensuring that we have adequate internal financial and accounting controls and procedures in place so that we can produce accurate financial statements on a timely basis is a costly and time-consuming effort that needs to be re-evaluated frequently. Our internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP. In connection with this offering, we intend to continue the process of documenting, reviewing, and improving our internal controls and procedures for compliance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which will require annual management assessment of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting beginning with the year ending December 31, 2021.

        Prior to the completion of this offering, we have been a private company with limited accounting personnel and other resources to address our internal control over financial reporting. In connection with the audit of our consolidated financial statements, we determined that a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting existed. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis.

        We determined that we had a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting for insufficient period end cut-off procedures related to accounting for certain operating expenses during the year ended December 31, 2018. This material weakness contributed to errors in our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2018 which resulted in overstatement of accrued liabilities, overstatement of sales and marketing expense, and overstatement of general and administrative expense. To remediate this material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting and address the deficiency in our accounting processes, we plan to hire additional accounting personnel, enhance and document accounting policies and procedures, and implement additional management review controls. While we intend to implement a plan to remediate this material weakness, we cannot predict the success of such plan or the outcome of our assessment of these plans and our material weakness remains unremediated at this time. We can give no assurance that implementing these remediation measures will resolve this material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting or that material weaknesses or significant deficiencies in our internal control over financial reporting will not be identified in the future. If we are unable to remediate this material weakness, or if we experience additional material weaknesses in the future or otherwise fail to maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately or timely report our financial condition or results of operations and investors may lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports and the market price of our common stock could be adversely affected. We

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could also become subject to investigations by the SEC or other regulatory authorities, which could require additional financial and management resources.

Anti-takeover provisions in our governing documents and under Delaware law could make an acquisition of our company more difficult, limit attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management, and limit the market price of our common stock.

        Our Amended Charter, Amended Bylaws and Delaware law contain or will contain provisions that could have the effect of rendering more difficult, delaying, or preventing an acquisition deemed undesirable by our board of directors. Among other things, our Amended Charter and/or Amended Bylaws will include the following provisions:

        These provisions, alone or together, could delay or prevent hostile takeovers and changes in control or changes in our management. As a Delaware corporation, we are also subject to provisions of Delaware law, including Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, which prevents interested stockholders, such as certain stockholders holding more than 15% of our outstanding common stock, from engaging in certain business combinations unless (i) prior to the time such stockholder became an interested stockholder, the board approved the transaction that resulted in such stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, (ii) upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in such stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the common stock, or (iii) following board approval, the business combination receives the approval of the holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock not held by such interested stockholder at an annual or special meeting of stockholders.

        Any provision of our Amended Charter, Amended Bylaws or Delaware law that has the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control could limit the opportunity for our stockholders to receive a premium for their shares of our common stock and could also affect the price that some investors are willing to pay for our common stock.

Our Amended Charter will provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders' ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or employees.

        Our Amended Charter, which will become effective prior to the completion of this offering, will provide that, unless we consent to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware is the sole and exclusive forum for: (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought

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on our behalf; (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, or other employees or stockholders to us or to our stockholders; (iii) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to the DGCL, the Amended Charter or the Amended Bylaws or as to which the DGCL confers exclusive jurisdiction on the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware; or (iv) any action asserting a claim governed by the internal affairs doctrine; provided that the exclusive forum provisions will not apply to suits brought to enforce any liability or duty created by the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, or to any claim for which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction. The choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder's ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers, or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers, and other employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our Amended Charter to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could harm our business, results of operations, and financial condition.

Our Amended Charter will provide that the doctrine of "corporate opportunity" does not apply with respect to any officer, director or stockholder who is not employed by us or our subsidiaries.

        Our Amended Charter will provide that the doctrine of "corporate opportunity" does not apply with respect to any officer, director or stockholder (or their respective affiliates) who is not employed by us or our subsidiaries. The doctrine of corporate opportunity generally provides that a corporate fiduciary may not develop an opportunity using corporate resources or information obtained in their corporate capacity for their personal advantage, acquire an interest adverse to that of the corporation or acquire property that is reasonably incident to the present or prospective business of the corporation or in which the corporation has a present or expectancy interest, unless that opportunity is first presented to the corporation and the corporation chooses not to pursue that opportunity. The doctrine of corporate opportunity is intended to preclude officers, directors or other fiduciaries from personally benefiting from opportunities that belong to the corporation. Our Amended Charter will, to the extent permitted by Delaware law, renounce any interest or expectancy that we have in, or right to be offered an opportunity to participate in, specified business opportunities that are from time to time presented to our officers, directors or stockholders or their respective affiliates (other than those who are employees of the Company or its subsidiaries). Any officers, directors or stockholders or their respective affiliates, other than those officers, directors, stockholders or affiliates who are employees of the Company or its subsidiaries, therefore will have no duty to communicate or present corporate opportunities to us, and will have the right to either hold any corporate opportunity for their (and their affiliates') own account and benefit or to recommend, assign or otherwise transfer such corporate opportunity to persons other than us, including to any officers, directors or stockholders or their respective affiliates (other than those who are employees of the Company or its subsidiaries). Notwithstanding the foregoing, our Amended Charter will not renounce our interest in any business opportunity that is expressly offered to an officer, director, stockholder or affiliate solely in their capacity as an officer, director or stockholder (or affiliate thereof).

        As a result, certain of our officers, directors or stockholders or their respective affiliates are not prohibited from operating or investing in competing businesses. We therefore may find ourselves in competition with certain of our officers, directors or stockholders or their respective affiliates, and we may not have knowledge of, or be able to pursue, transactions that could potentially be beneficial to us. Accordingly, we may lose a corporate opportunity or suffer competitive harm, which could negatively impact our business or prospects.

An active trading market for our common stock may never develop or be sustained.

        Although the shares of our common stock will be authorized for trading on the NYSE, an active trading market for our common stock may not develop on that exchange or elsewhere or, if developed, that market may not be sustained. Accordingly, if an active trading market for our common stock does

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not develop or is not maintained, the liquidity of our common stock, your ability to sell your shares of our common stock when desired and the prices that you may obtain for your shares of common stock will be adversely affected.

If securities analysts do not publish research or reports about our Company, or if they issue unfavorable commentary about us or our industry or downgrade our common stock, the price of our common stock could decline.

        The trading market for our common stock will depend in part on the research and reports that third-party securities analysts publish about our Company and the industries in which we operate. We may be unable or slow to attract research coverage and if one or more analysts cease coverage of our company, the price and trading volume of our securities would likely be negatively impacted. If any of the analysts that may cover us change their recommendation regarding our securities adversely, or provide more favorable relative recommendations about our competitors, the price of our securities would likely decline. If any analyst that may cover us ceases covering us or fails to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which could cause the price or trading volume of our securities to decline. Moreover, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrades our common stock, or if our reporting results do not meet their expectations, the market price of our common stock could decline.

If our operating and financial performance in any given period does not meet the guidance that we provide to the public, the market price of our common stock may decline.

        We may, but are not obligated to, provide public guidance on our expected operating and financial results for future periods. Any such guidance will be comprised of forward-looking statements subject to the risks and uncertainties described in this prospectus and in our other public filings and public statements. Our actual results may not always be in line with or exceed any guidance we have provided, especially in times of economic uncertainty. If, in the future, our operating or financial results for a particular period do not meet any guidance we provide or the expectations of investment analysts, or if we reduce our guidance for future periods, the market price of our common stock may decline. Even if we do issue public guidance, there can be no assurance that we will continue to do so in the future.

Investors in this offering will experience immediate and substantial dilution.

        Based on an assumed initial public offering price of $            per share (the midpoint of the range set forth on the cover of this prospectus), purchasers of our common stock in this offering will experience an immediate and substantial dilution of $            per share in the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of common stock from the initial public offering price, and our as adjusted net tangible book value as of                        , 2019 after giving effect to this offering would be $            per share. This dilution is due in large part to earlier investors having paid substantially less than the initial public offering price when they purchased their shares. See "Dilution."

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CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

        This prospectus contains forward-looking statements. All statements other than statements of historical facts contained in this prospectus may be forward-looking statements. Statements regarding our future results of operations and financial position, business strategy and plans and objectives of management for future operations, including, among others, statements regarding the offering, expected growth, future capital expenditures and debt service obligations, are forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terms such as "may," "will," "should," "expects," "plans," "anticipates," "could," "intends," "targets," "projects," "contemplates," "believes," "estimates," "predicts," "potential" or "continue" or the negative of these terms or other similar expressions. Forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus include, but are not limited to statements about:

        The forward-looking statements in this prospectus are only predictions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. Forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other important factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. We believe that these factors include, but are not limited to the factors set forth under "Risk Factors." Because forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted or quantified, you should not rely on these forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in our forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur and actual results could differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements.

        In addition, statements that "we believe" and similar statements reflect our beliefs and opinions on the relevant subject. These statements are based upon information available to us as of the date of this prospectus, and while we believe such information forms a reasonable basis for such statements, such information may be limited or incomplete, and our statements should not be read to indicate that we have conducted an exhaustive inquiry into, or review of, all potentially available relevant information.

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These statements are inherently uncertain and investors are cautioned not to unduly rely upon these statements.

        You should read this prospectus and the documents that we reference in this prospectus and have filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance and achievements may be materially different from what we expect. We qualify all of our forward-looking statements by these cautionary statements.

        These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this prospectus. Except as required by applicable law, we do not plan to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements contained in this prospectus after we distribute this prospectus, whether as a result of any new information, future events or otherwise.

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USE OF PROCEEDS

        We estimate, based upon an assumed initial public offering price of $            per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), that we will receive net proceeds from this offering of approximately $             million (or $             million if the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option in full), after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

        We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering for working capital, to fund growth and for other general corporate purposes, including the repayment of approximately $             million of borrowings outstanding under our Senior Secured Facility. Currently, the Senior Secured Facility consists of a $25.0 million revolving credit facility that becomes due and payable on September 1, 2020, and borrowings under the Senior Secured Facility accrue interest at an annual rate equal to the greater of (i) the prime rate or (ii) 3.5%. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Liquidity and Capital Resources—Senior Secured Facility."

        We cannot specify with certainty all of the uses of the net proceeds that we will receive from this offering. Accordingly, we will have broad discretion in the application of these proceeds. See "Risk Factors—Risks Related to this Offering and Ownership of Our Common Stock—Our management team will have immediate and broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from this offering and may not use them effectively" for additional information.

        Assuming no exercise of the underwriters' over-allotment option, each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $            per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $             million, assuming the number of shares offered, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

        Each 1,000,000 share increase (decrease) in the number of shares offered in this offering would increase (decrease) the net proceeds to us from this offering by approximately $             million, assuming that the price per share for the offering remains at $            (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus), and after deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

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CAPITALIZATION

        The following table sets forth the cash and cash equivalents and capitalization as of September 30, 2019, as follows:

        Our capitalization following the closing of this offering will be adjusted based on the actual initial public offering price and other terms of this offering determined at pricing. Cash and cash equivalents are not components of our total capitalization. You should read this information in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and the "Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data" and "Management's Discussion and Analysis of

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Financial Condition and Results of Operations" sections and other financial information contained in this prospectus.

 
  As of September 30, 2019  
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
  Actual   Pro forma   Pro forma as
adjusted(1)(2)
 
 
  (unaudited)
 

Cash and cash equivalents

  $ 54,596   $                $               

Indebtedness:

                   

Senior Secured Facility

    15,868   $                $               

Subordinated Facility

    25,000   $                $               

Convertible preferred stock, $0.000001 par value—18,804,147 shares authorized; 18,764,351 issued and outstanding actual;                shares authorized,                issued and outstanding actual pro forma;                shares authorized,                issued and outstanding actual pro forma as adjusted

    306,989              

Total deficit:

                   

Stockholders' deficit:

                   

Preferred stock, $0.000001 par value—no shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding actual;                shares authorized,                issued and outstanding actual pro forma;                shares authorized,                issued and outstanding actual pro forma as adjusted

                 

Common stock, par value $0.000001 per share; no shares authorized, no shares issued and outstanding, actual;            shares authorized,            issued and outstanding, pro forma;            shares authorized,            issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted

                                                    

Class A common stock, par value $0.000001 per share; 19,044,358 shares authorized, 9,190,858 shares issued and outstanding, actual;                shares authorized,                issued and outstanding, pro forma;                shares authorized,                issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted

                                       

Class B common stock, par value $0.000001 per share; 36,000,000 shares authorized, 1,454,369 shares issued and outstanding, actual;                shares authorized,                issued and outstanding, pro forma;                shares authorized,                issued and outstanding, pro forma as adjusted

                                       

Additional paid-in capital

    15,716                                    

Accumulated other comprehensive (loss) income

    (344 )                                  

Accumulated deficit

    (299,619 )                                  

Total stockholders' deficit

    (284,247 )                                  

Total capitalization

  $ 63,610   $                $               

(1)
Each $1.00 increase or decrease in the assumed initial public offering price of $            per share (which is the midpoint of the price range set forth on the cover page of this prospectus) would increase or decrease each of cash, additional paid-in capital, total stockholders' equity and total capitalization on a pro forma as adjusted basis by approximately $             million, assuming the number of shares offered, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same, and

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(2)
Subsequent to September 30, 2019, an additional 416,559 shares of Series D preferred stock were issued to two accredited investors at a purchase price of $31.24715. Additionally, in November 2019, we borrowed $25.0 million under the Subordinated Facility. Each of these events are not reflected in this table.

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DIVIDEND POLICY

        We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business and to repay indebtedness, and therefore we do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination as to the declaration and payment of dividends, if any, will be at the discretion of our board of directors, subject to compliance with contractual restrictions and covenants in the agreements governing our current and future indebtedness. Any such determination will also depend upon our business prospects, results of operations, financial condition, cash requirements and availability and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.

        Accordingly, you may need to sell your shares of our common stock to realize a return on your investment, and you may not be able to sell your shares at or above the price you paid for them. See "Risk Factors—Risks Related to this Offering and Ownership of Our Common Stock—We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock for the foreseeable future."

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DILUTION

        If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be immediately diluted to the extent of the difference between the initial public offering price per share and the pro forma net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering.

        Our pro forma net tangible book value as of September 30, 2019, was $             million, or $            per share. Pro forma net tangible book value per share is determined by subtracting our total liabilities from the total book value of our tangible assets and dividing the difference by the number of shares of common stock deemed to be outstanding, after giving effect to (i) the Private Financing; (ii) the assumed exercise of warrants to purchase            shares of our Class A common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2019, which will result in the issuance of            shares of common stock in connection with this offering; (iii) the Preferred Conversion and (iv) the Reclassification.

        Our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2019, after giving effect to this offering would have been approximately $             million, or $            per share of common stock. This amount represents an immediate increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of $            per share to our existing stockholders and an immediate dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value of approximately $            per share to new investors purchasing shares of common stock in this offering. We determine dilution by subtracting the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the amount of cash that a new investor paid for a share of common stock. The following table illustrates this dilution:

Assumed initial public offering price per share

        $               

Pro forma net tangible book value per share as of September 30, 2019 before this offering

  $                     

Increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share attributable to investors in this offering

             

Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering

        $               

Dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share to new common stock investors in this offering

        $               

        A $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $            per share, which is the midpoint of the price range listed on the cover page of this prospectus, would increase (decrease) the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering by approximately $            , and dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share to new investors by approximately $            , assuming that the number of shares offered by us, as set forth on the cover page of this prospectus, remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

        If the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option to purchase additional shares of common stock from us in full, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value after the offering would be $            per share, the increase in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share to existing stockholders would be $            per share and the dilution in pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value to new investors would be $            per share, in each case assuming an initial public offering price of $            per share, which is the midpoint of the price range listed on the cover page of this prospectus.

        The following table summarizes, as of September 30, 2019, after giving effect to this offering, the number of shares of common stock purchased from us, the total consideration paid, or to be paid, to us and the average price per share paid, or to be paid, by existing stockholders and by the new investors. The calculation below is based on an assumed initial public offering price of $            per share, which

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is the midpoint of the price range listed on the cover page of this prospectus, before deducting the estimated underwriting discounts and commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us.

 
  Shares Purchased   Total Consideration    
 
 
  Average price
per Share
 
 
  Number   Percent   Amount   Percent  

Existing stockholders

            % $                    % $               

New investors

                               

Total

          100 % $                  100 % $               

        Each $1.00 increase (decrease) in the assumed initial public offering price of $            per share would increase (decrease) the total consideration paid by new investors and the total consideration paid by all stockholders by $             million, assuming the number of shares offered by us remains the same and after deducting estimated underwriting discounts and commissions but before estimated offering expenses.

        Except as otherwise indicated, the discussion and the tables above assume no exercise of the underwriters' over-allotment option to purchase additional shares of common stock from us. The number of shares of our common stock outstanding after this offering as shown in the tables above is based on the number of shares outstanding as of September 30, 2019, after giving effect to the Preferred Conversion and the Reclassification and excludes:

        To the extent any of these outstanding options are exercised, there will be further dilution to new investors. To the extent all of such outstanding options had been exercised as of September 30, 2019, the pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering would be $            , and total dilution per share to new investors would be $            .

        If the underwriters exercise their over-allotment option to purchase additional shares of common stock from us in full:

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SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA

        The following tables present the selected consolidated financial and other data for Casper Sleep Inc. and its subsidiaries. We have derived the selected consolidated statement of operations data and consolidated statement of cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018 and the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 and the selected consolidated balance sheet data as of September 30, 2019 from our consolidated financial statements included elsewhere in this prospectus. You should read this data together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus and the section titled "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations." The unaudited interim consolidated financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the audited annual consolidated financial statements and reflect, in the opinion of management, all adjustments of a normal, recurring nature that are necessary for a fair statement of the unaudited interim consolidated financial statements. Our historical results for any prior period are not necessarily indicative of our future results.

 
  Nine Months Ended September 30,   Year Ended December 31,  
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
  2019   2018   2018   2017  
 
  (unaudited)
   
   
 

Consolidated Statement of Operations and Comprehensive Loss:

                         

Revenue, net of $80,085, $57,659, $80,695, and $45,656 in refunds, returns, and discounts for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018 and the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively

  $ 312,319   $ 259,687   $ 357,891     250,909  

Cost of goods sold

    157,342     143,556     200,139     134,038  

Gross profit

    154,977     116,131     157,752     116,871  

Operating expenses

                         

Sales and marketing expenses

    113,994     92,705     126,189     106,809  

General and administrative expense

    106,126     88,166     123,523     81,323  

Total operating expenses

    220,120     180,871     249,712     188,132  

Loss from operations

    (65,143 )   (64,740 )   (91,960 )   (71,261 )

Other (income) expense

                         

Interest (income) expense

    1,355     (503 )   (248 )   (307 )

Other (income) expense, net

    841     (51 )   341     2,415  

Total other (income) expenses, net

    2,196     (554 )   93     2,108  

Loss before income taxes

    (67,339 )   (64,186 )   (92,053 )   (73,369 )

Income tax expense

    60     44     39     23  

Net loss

    (67,399 )   (64,230 )   (92,092 )   (73,392 )

Other comprehensive income (loss)

                         

Currency translation adjustment

    75     (1,288 )   (1,077 )   279  

Total comprehensive loss

  $ (67,324 ) $ (65,518 ) $ (93,169 ) $ (73,113 )

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

  $ (6.40 ) $ (6.22 ) $ (8.91 ) $ (7.22 )

Weighted average number of shares used in computing net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, basic and diluted

    10,530,262     10,320,666     10,335,986     10,164,450  

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  Nine Months Ended
September 30,
  Year Ended
December 31,
 
(in thousands)
  2019   2018   2018   2017  
 
  (unaudited)
   
   
 

Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows:

                         

Net cash used in operating activities

  $ (29,706 ) $ (44,934 ) $ (72,255 ) $ (84,015 )

Net cash used in investing activities

    (39,631 )   (7,249 )   (12,035 )   (10,085 )

Net cash provided by financing activities

    95,808     183     14,840     169,294  

 

 
  As of
September 30,
  As of
December 31,
 
(in thousands)
  2019   2018   2017  
 
  (unaudited)
   
   
 

Consolidated Balance Sheet:

                   

Cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash(1)

  $ 54,901   $ 28,355   $ 98,882  

Total assets

    192,509     116,538     161,771  

Total liabilities(2)

    169,767     101,625     59,680  

Additional paid-in capital

    15,716     8,750     2,759  

Accumulated deficit

    (299,619 )   (232,220 )   (140,128 )

Stockholders' deficit

    (284,247 ) $ (223,889 ) $ (136,711 )

(1)
Includes $0.3 million, $1.5 million, and $1.4 million of restricted cash as of September 30, 2019, December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively.

(2)
Includes $15.9 million and $14.6 million of short-term debt as of September 30, 2019 and as of December 31, 2018, respectively, consisting of our Senior Secured Facility, of which approximately $          million of borrowings outstanding under our Senior Secured Facility will be repaid in connection with this offering. See "Use of Proceeds." We had no short-term debt as of December 31, 2017. Also includes $25.0 million of long-term debt as of September 30, 2019, consisting of our Subordinated Facility. We had no long-term debt as of December 31, 2018 or 2017.

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MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION
AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

        You should read the following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations together with "Selected Consolidated Financial and Other Data" and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included elsewhere in this prospectus. This discussion contains forward-looking statements based upon current plans, expectations and beliefs involving risks and uncertainties. Our actual results may differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth under "Risk Factors" and in other parts of this prospectus.

Overview

        As a pioneer of the Sleep Economy, we bring the benefits of cutting-edge technology, data, and insights directly to consumers. We focus on building direct relationships with consumers, providing a human experience, and making shopping for sleep joyful. We meet consumers wherever they are, online and in person, providing a fun and engaging experience, while reducing the hassles associated with traditional purchases. We are building a universal, enduring brand that is already embraced by over one million happy customers as of September 30, 2019.

        Our products seek to address real life sleep challenges by optimizing for a variety of factors that impact sleep like the microclimate under the covers by regulating humidity and temperature; comfort and support, through the use of high-quality materials and ergonomic designs; and the ambience and sleep environment, through smart devices that provide sleep-conducive lighting. We also work to address "the little things" in our products, offering innovative features to make the sleep experience better and less stressful. Casper Labs innovates throughout the Sleep Economy. Based in San Francisco, Casper Labs has over 25,000 square feet of fabrication and test space, featuring state-of-the-art capabilities to test against a wide range of factors affecting sleep quality. Casper Labs controls every aspect of our product offerings, including design and construction, material performance requirements, manufacturing protocols, supplier selection, packaging specifications, and quality assurance. We believe that no other company in the category has our level of product development talent, resources, or expertise.

        We distribute our products through a flexible, multi-channel approach combining our direct-to-consumer channel, including our e-commerce platform and retail stores, with our retail partnerships. Our presence in physical retail stores has proven complementary to our e-commerce channel, as we believe interaction with multiple channels has created a synergistic "network effect" that increases system-wide sales as a whole. We believe our multi-channel expansion creates synergies and that these channels, to date, have proven to be complementary, not cannibalistic. In fact, for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, our direct-to-consumer sales in cities where we have opened retail stores have grown over 100% faster on average than cities without a Casper retail store. As of September 30, 2019, we distributed our products directly to our customers in seven countries through our e-commerce platform, our 48 Casper stores, and our 14 retail partners, including with Amazon, Costco, Hudson's Bay Company, and Target.

        Through our high-quality and innovative product portfolio, synergistic multi-channel go-to-market strategy and unwavering focus on our consumers, we have experienced significant growth across channels:

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Factors Affecting our Financial Condition and Results of Operations

        Our financial condition and results of operations have been, and will continue to be, affected by a number of important factors, including the following:

        Ability to Grow Our Brand Awareness.    Our brand name and image are integral to the growth of our business and to the implementation of our strategies for expanding our business. We believe our brand sets us apart from our competitors, and is essential to our ability to engage and to stay connected with prospective and existing customers as they discover, evaluate, and purchase our suite of products and services. This continued customer engagement helps to inform and accelerate our culture of innovation and improves how we execute our vision of becoming the world's most loved and largest sleep company. In these ways, our brand directly contributes to and drives our growth. We believe that as brand awareness grows and deepens, we will continue to strengthen our ability to create and capture value across the Sleep Economy, enhancing our competitive advantages in a category that we believe no other single company understands better. We believe the consistency and quality of our messaging has helped us build our brand into a household name and create a large and highly engaged consumer following, as partially demonstrated by our 31% aided brand awareness as of September 30, 2019. We believe our brand strength will enable us to continue to expand across both markets and products, allowing us to access a global market.

        Ability to Grow Our Direct-to-Consumer Presence and Network of Retail Partnerships.    We distribute our products through a flexible multi-channel approach combining our direct-to-consumer channel, including our e-commerce platform and retail stores, with retail partnerships. But whether consumers engage us through our website, at our stores, or through a retail partner—and whether they're looking for information, content, or to purchase—we believe those who interact with Casper have an experience that is genuine, trustworthy and approachable, as well as fun and playful across every channel.

        We intend to continue leveraging our marketing strategy to drive increased consumer traffic to both casper.com and to our physical retail locations. As of September 30, 2019, we operated 48 retail store locations in key cities in the United States and Canada. Over time, we believe there is an opportunity to have more than 200 Casper retail stores in North America alone, which we believe will drive growth and overall performance. Our existing stores that have been operating for one year or longer are all four-wall profitable as of September 30, 2019. In addition, as of September 30, 2019, our stores that have been operating for one year or longer have averaged approximately $1,600 in annual net sales per sellable square foot, which we believe is reflective of our high volumes of consumer traffic, our ability to successfully engage with consumers to drive sales, our compelling products and services, in-store inventory availability, and an effective pricing strategy. Consistent with our experience to date, we target for our future retail stores a cash-on-cash payback period ranging from 18 to 24 months. Additionally, as of September 30, 2019, we had 14 retail partners, including Amazon, Costco, Hudson's Bay Company, and Target, among others. Our research indicates that these partnerships not only expand our consumer base but also provide access to future consumers that have

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yet to engage with the Casper brand. We believe our retail channel improves our consumer experience, attracting and educating more consumers about Casper, which in turn attracts more partners to our brand thereby further enhancing our ability to generate revenue. We continue to evaluate partnerships with a wide variety of retailers, including online retailers, big-box retailers, department stores and specialty retailers.

        Investments in Research and Development and Ability to Improve Existing Products and Introduce New Products Based on Superior Innovation.    Casper is constantly investing in and improving existing products and introducing new products and services with proprietary technologies to address the full Sleep Arc. For example, we recently expanded our existing mattress product offering by designing new hybrid mattresses that combine our proprietary foam technology with resilient springs. Casper Labs, our over 25,000 square foot advanced research facility in San Francisco, enables us to develop, rapidly prototype and test multiple design iterations. We thoughtfully curate our product and services offerings utilizing high-quality materials and advanced manufacturing processes to create a differentiated experience. The improvement of existing products and the introduction of new products have been, and we expect will continue to be, integral to our growth. From January 1, 2017 to September 30, 2019, we invested $27.7 million in research and development, and we expect to continue to invest in our product development capabilities in the future. We believe our rigorous approach to creating and improving our products has helped redefine and grow the addressable market that we call the Sleep Economy. This in turn offers consumers more opportunities to interact with us and purchase from us, which drives new consumer as well as repeat consumer business.

        Cost-Effective Acquisition of New Consumers and Retention of Existing Customers.    To continue to grow our business, we must acquire new consumers as well as retain existing customers in a cost-effective manner. We continually evolve our marketing strategies, adjusting our messages, the amount we spend on advertising and the channels in which we spend. We have made, and we expect that we will continue to make, significant investments in attracting new consumers, including through traditional, digital, social media and original Casper content. It is critical for us to maintain reasonable costs for these marketing efforts relative to sales derived from new consumers. From 2017 through September 30, 2019, while growing our e-commerce channel, we have maintained 'first purchase profitable' e-commerce economics. We believe our multi-channel expansion creates synergies and that these channels, to date, have proven to be complementary, not cannibalistic. In fact, for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, our direct-to-consumer sales in cities where we have opened retail stores have grown over 100% faster on average than cities without a Casper retail store, and we expect our marketing efficiency (which we define as net revenue as a percentage of total media spend over a specific time) to remain generally stable despite increased competition. As we continue to launch new products and improve existing products, we expect customers generating repeat revenue to grow due to our efforts to create a differentiated and joyful experience, eliminating friction and boundaries. Repeat customers, who have purchased a Casper product at least once before through our direct-to-consumer channel, represent over 16% of our customer base from inception through September 30, 2019.

        Competitive Industry Dynamics.    We operate in the highly competitive mattress, soft goods, bedroom furniture, sleep technology and services industries, among others industries. The competitive environment of the industries in which we operate continually subjects us to the risk of loss of market share, loss of significant customers, reductions in margins, discounting by competitors, and to the challenge of acquiring new customers. While the mattress industry is highly consolidated and is dominated by a few long-standing players, the soft goods, bedroom furniture, sleep technology and services industries are highly fragmented, which presents opportunities for growth in each of those markets. We combine our offerings with a differentiated in-store experience and high-quality consumer experience, which has enabled us to continue to grow our market share and drive revenue.

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        Disciplined Approach to Operations.    As we scale our business, we intend to continue to drive continued operational improvement so that we can provide quality products and services to ensure the best possible consumer experiences while improving our revenue and controlling our costs. In particular, we plan to drive operational efficiencies through a focus on reducing product return rates, price optimization, investing in our supply chain, improving the efficiency and enhancing performance of our marketing investments, and realizing economies of scale.

Key Operating Metrics and Non-GAAP Financial Measures

        We prepare and analyze operating and financial data to assess the performance of our business and allocate our resources. The key operating performance and financial metrics and indicators we use are set forth below. The following table sets forth our key performance indicators for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018 and the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017.

 
  Nine Months
Ended September 30,
  Year Ended
December 31,
 
(in thousands, except percentages)
  2019   2018   2018   2017  

Gross margin

    49.6 %   44.7 %   44.1 %   46.6 %

Adjusted EBITDA(1)

  $ (53,807 ) $ (57,458 ) $ (82,399 ) $ (70,549 )

(1)
For a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to its most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, net loss, and why we consider Adjusted EBITDA useful, see "Prospectus Summary—Summary Consolidated Financial and Other Data."

        Gross Margin.    Gross margin is defined as gross profit divided by sales revenue, net.

        Adjusted EBITDA.    Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net loss before interest (income) expense, income tax expense and depreciation and amortization as further adjusted to exclude the impact of stock-based compensation expense, impairment and restructuring, and costs associated with legal settlements. Adjusted EBITDA is a non-GAAP financial measure. For more information about how we use this non-GAAP financial measure in our business, the limitations of this measure, and a reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most directly comparable GAAP measure, please see the section titled "Prospectus Summary—Summary Consolidated Financial and Other Data."

Components of our Results of Operations

Revenue, Net

        Revenue, net is comprised of global sales through our direct-to-consumer channels and our retail partnerships. Revenue, net reflects the impact of product returns as well as discounts for certain sales programs and promotions.

        Revenue, net comprises the consideration received or receivable for the sale of goods and services in the ordinary course of our activities net of returns and promotions.

        Promotions are occasionally offered, primarily in the form of discounts, and are recorded as a reduction of gross revenue at the date of revenue recognition. We typically accept sales returns during a 30- or 100-night trial period, depending on the product, with our mattresses having a 100-night trial period. A sales return accrual is estimated based on historical return rates and is then adjusted for any current trends as appropriate. Returns are netted against the sales allowance reserve for the period. Sales are recognized as deferred revenue at the point of sale and are recognized as revenue upon the delivery to the consumer. Revenue through our direct-to-consumer channels is recognized upon in-store or home delivery to the consumer, as applicable, and retail partnership revenue is recognized upon the transfer of control, on a per contract basis.

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Cost of Goods Sold

        Cost of goods sold consists of costs of purchased merchandise, including freight, duty, and non-refundable taxes incurred in delivering goods to our consumers and distribution centers, packaging and component costs, warehousing and fulfilment costs, damages, and excess and obsolete inventory write-downs.

Gross Profit and Gross Margin

        We calculate gross profit as revenue, net less cost of goods sold. We calculate gross margin as gross profit divided by net revenue for a specific period of time. Gross margin in our direct-to-consumer channel, including company-owned retail stores and e-commerce sales, is generally higher than that on sales to our retail partnerships.

        Our gross margin may in the future fluctuate from period to period based on a number of factors, including cost of purchased merchandise and components, the mix of products and services we sell and the mix of channels through which we sell our products. We have historically experienced that gross margin, by product, tends to increase over time as we realize cost efficiencies as a result of economies of scale, sourcing strategies and product re-engineering programs. In addition, our ability to continue to reduce the cost of our products is critical to increasing our gross margin over the long-term.

Operating Expenses

        Operating expenses consist of sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses, including research and development.

        Sales and Marketing Expenses.    Sales and marketing expenses represent the largest component of our operating expenses and consist primarily of advertising and marketing promotions of our products and services as well as consulting and contractor expenses. We expect our sales and marketing expenses to increase in absolute dollars as we continue to promote our offerings. At the same time, we also anticipate that these expenses will decrease as a percentage of our sales revenue, net over time, as we improve marketing efficiencies and grow channels that require lower sales and marketing support.

        General and Administrative Expenses.    General and administrative expenses consist of personnel-related costs for our finance, legal, human resources, and IT functions, as well as litigation expenses, credit card fees, professional services, depreciation and amortization and other administrative expenses. General and administrative expenses also include research and development expenses consisting primarily of personnel related expenses, consulting and contractor expenses, tooling, test equipment and prototype materials. We expect our general and administrative expenses to increase in absolute dollars due to the growth of our business and related infrastructure as well as legal, accounting, insurance, investor relations and other compliance costs associated with becoming a public company. However, we expect our general and administrative expenses to decrease as a percentage of our sales revenue, net over time, as we scale our business.

Income Tax Expense

        We account for income taxes in accordance with ASC Topic 740, Income Taxes—Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the temporary differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect for the year in which the differences are expected to reverse. We classify all deferred income tax assets and liabilities as noncurrent on our balance sheet. The effect of a change in tax rates on deferred tax assets and liabilities is recognized within the provision for (benefit from) income taxes on the consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss in the period that includes the enactment date.

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        We reduce deferred tax assets, if necessary, by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that we will not realize some or all of the deferred tax assets. In making such a determination, we consider all available positive and negative evidence, including taxable income in prior carryback years (if carryback is permitted under the relevant tax law), the timing of the reversal of existing taxable temporary differences, tax-planning strategies and projected future taxable income. Please refer to Note 10 to our audited consolidated financial statements appearing elsewhere in this prospectus for additional information on the composition of these valuation allowances and for information on the impact of U.S. tax reform legislation. We recognize the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position only if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained on examination by taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position.

        We recognize interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions within the provision for (benefit from) income taxes on our consolidated statement of operations and comprehensive loss.

Seasonality and Quarterly Comparability

        Our revenue includes a seasonal component, with the highest sales activity normally occurring during the second and third quarters of the year due to back-to-school, home moves and other seasonal factors, along with seasonal promotions we offer during these quarters. The timing of on-boarding new retail partnerships, which typically launch with large inventory buy-ins, and the timing of launching new products may also impact comparability between periods. These factors can also impact our working capital and/or inventory balances in a given period.

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Results of Operations

Nine Months Ended September 30, 2019 Compared to Nine Months Ended September 30, 2018

        The following table sets forth information comparing the components of operations and comprehensive loss for the periods indicated.

 
   
   
   
  Period
over
Period
Change
   
   
 
 
  Nine months ended
September 30
   
  Nine months ended
September 30
 
(in thousands, except percentages, which show percentage of Revenue, net)
   
 
  2019   2018   Dollar   Percentage   2019   2018  
 
  (unaudited)
 

Revenue, net of $80,085 and $57,659 in refunds, returns, and discounts for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively

  $ 312,319     259,687     52,632     20.3 %   100.0 %   100.0 %

Cost of goods sold

    157,342     143,556     13,786     9.6 %   50.4 %   55.3 %

Gross profit

    154,977     116,131     38,846     33.5 %   49.6 %   44.7 %

Operating expenses

                                     

Sales and marketing expenses

    113,994     92,705     21,289     23.0 %   36.5 %   35.7 %

General and administrative expense

    106,126     88,166     17,960     20.4 %   34.0 %   34.0 %

Total operating expenses

    220,120     180,871     39,249     21.7 %   70.5 %   69.6 %

Loss from operations

    (65,143 )   (64,740 )   (403 )   0.6 %   (20.9 %)   (24.9 %)

Other (income) expense:

                                     

Interest (income) expense

    1,355     (503 )   1,858     (369.4 %)   0.4 %   (0.2 %)

Other (income) expense, net

    841     (51 )   892     (1,749.0 %)   0.3 %   (0.0 %)

Total other (income) expenses, net

    2,196     (554 )   2,750     (496.4 %)   0.7 %   (0.2 %)

Loss before income taxes

    (67,339 )   (64,186 )   (3,153 )   4.9 %   (21.6 %)   (24.7 %)

Income tax expense

    60     44     16     36.4 %   0.0 %   0.0 %

Net loss

    (67,399 )   (64,230 )   (3,169 )   4.9 %   (21.6 %)   (24.7 %)

Other comprehensive income (loss)

                                     

Currency translation adjustment

    75     (1,288 )   1,363     (105.8 %)   0.0 %   (0.5 %)

Total comprehensive loss

  $ (67,324 )   (65,518 )   (1,806 )   2.8 %   (21.6 %)   (25.2 %)

Revenue, Net

        Revenue, net was $312.3 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, an increase of $52.6 million, or 20.3%, compared to $259.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018. Revenue, net increased as a result of increased sales through our direct-to-consumer and retail partnership channels and the introduction of new products. Direct-to-consumer sales increased 13.0% compared to the nine months ended September 30, 2018 as we continued to gain market share and expand our retail presence to 48 stores, with 25 net new stores opened at various points throughout the nine months ended September 30, 2019. Sales to retail partners increased 74.6% compared to nine months ended September 30, 2018, driven by growth of sales activity by existing partners, the introduction of new partners and the expansion of our product offerings.

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Gross Profit and Cost of Goods Sold

        Gross profit was $155.0 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, an increase of $38.8 million, or 33.5%, compared to $116.1 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018. Cost of goods sold was $157.3 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, an increase of $13.8 million, or 9.6%, compared to $143.6 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018. Gross margin for the three months ended September 30, 2019 was 50.7% compared to 45.8% for the three months ended September 30, 2018. Gross margin for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 was 49.6% compared to 44.7% for the nine months ended September 30, 2018. The increase in gross margin was largely driven by higher margin products among our new offerings as well as implementing supply chain initiatives designed to reduce product unit costs, which as expected has had a favorable impact to our cost of goods sold.

Sales and Marketing Expense

        Sales and marketing expenses were $114.0 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, an increase of $21.3 million, or 23.0%, compared to $92.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018. Sales and marketing expenses increased as we continued to invest in driving traffic to our e-commerce website, marketing our products to consumers and building our brand. Sales and marketing expenses as a percentage of sales revenue, net increased from 35.7% for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 to 36.5% for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, due to a combination of increased marketing spend to promote new products, such as the Casper and Wave Hybrid mattresses, and increased discounts and adjustments which impacted net revenue.

General and Administrative Expenses

        General and administrative expenses were $106.1 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, an increase of $18.0 million, or 20.4%, compared to $88.2 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018. General and administrative expenses increased as we invested for growth in hiring to support our growing business, particularly in retail stores and product development. We believe innovation is a key differentiator and invest significant resources in research and development to drive product innovation to improve sleep quality.

Other (Income) Expense, Net

        Other expense, net was $2.2 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, an increase of $2.8 million compared to income of $0.6 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018. The increase was due to interest incurred on our Subordinated Facility and Senior Secured Facility.

Income Tax Expense

        Income tax expense was $60.0 thousand for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, an increase of $16.0 thousand compared to income tax expense of $44.0 thousand for the nine months ended September 30, 2018. The increase in income tax was immaterial.

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Year Ended December 31, 2018 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2017

        The following table sets forth information comparing the components of operations and comprehensive loss for the periods indicated.

 
  Year Ended
December 31,
  Year over Year Change   Year Ended
December 31,
 
(in thousands, except percentages, which show percentage of Revenue, net)
  2018   2017   Dollar   Percentage   2018   2017  

Revenue, net of $80,695 and $45,656 in refunds, returns and discounts for the year ended December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively

  $ 357,891   $ 250,909   $ 106,982     42.6 %   100.0 %   100.0 %

Cost of goods sold

    200,139     134,038     66,101     49.3 %   55.9 %   53.4 %

Gross profit

    157,752     116,871     40,881     35.0 %   44.1 %   46.6 %

Operating expenses

                                     

Sales and marketing expenses

    126,189     106,809     19,380     18.1 %   35.3 %   42.6 %

General and administrative expense

    123,523     81,323     42,200     51.9 %   34.5 %   32.4 %

Total operating expenses

    249,712     188,132     61,580     32.7 %   69.8 %   75.0 %

Loss from operations

    (91,960 )   (71,261 )   (20,699 )   29.0 %   (25.7 )%   (28.4 )%

Other (income) expense

                                     

Interest income

    (248 )   (307 )   59     (19.2 )%   (0.1 )%   (0.1 )%

Other expense, net

    341     2,415     (2,074 )   (85.9 )%   0.1 %   1.0 %

Total other expenses, net

    93     2,108     (2,015 )   (95.6 )%   0.0 %   0.8 %

Loss before income taxes

    (92,053 )   (73,369 )   (18,684 )   25.5 %   (25.7 )%   (29.2 )%

Income tax expense

    39     23     16     69.6 %   0.0 %   0.0 %

Net loss

    (92,092 )   (73,392 )   (18,700 )   25.5 %   (25.7 )%   (29.3 )%

Other comprehensive income (loss) Currency translation adjustment

    (1,077 )   279     (1,356 )   (486.0 )%   (0.3 )%   0.1 %

Total comprehensive loss

  $ (93,169 ) $ (73,113 ) $ (20,056 )   27.4 %   (26.0 )%   (29.1 )%

Revenue, Net

        Revenue, net was $357.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of $107.0 million, or 42.6%, compared to $250.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Revenue, net increased as a result of increased sales through our direct-to-consumer and retail partnership channels and the introduction of new products, including a humidity-fighting duvet, a platform bed, a nightstand, and the Nap Pillow. Direct-to-consumer sales increased 41.9% compared to 2017 as we continued to gain market share and expand our retail presence to 23 stores, with nine new stores opened at various points throughout 2018. Sales to retail partners increased 47.7% compared to 2017, driven by growth of sales activity by existing partners, the introduction of six new partners and the expansion of our offerings in 2018.

Gross Profit and Cost of Goods Sold

        Gross profit was $157.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of $40.9 million, or 35.0%, compared to $116.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Cost of goods sold was $200.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of $66.1 million, or 49.3%, compared to $134.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Gross margin for the year ended December 31, 2018 was 44.1% compared to 46.6% for 2017. The decrease in gross margin was

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largely driven by increased sales to retail partners, which are at a lower gross margin than direct-to-consumer sales. We also recorded a charge for slow moving inventory of $2.3 million in 2018 which is included in cost of goods sold. As part of our efforts to increase our gross margin, we are introducing higher margin products among our new offerings as well as implementing supply chain initiatives designed to reduce product unit costs, which we expect to have a favorable impact to our cost of goods sold.

Sales and Marketing Expense

        Sales and marketing expenses were $126.2 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of $19.4 million, or 18.1%, compared to $106.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. Sales and marketing expenses increased as we continued to invest in driving traffic to our e-commerce website, marketing our products to consumers and building our brand. Sales and marketing expenses as a percentage of sales revenue, net decreased from 42.6% in 2017 to 35.3% in 2018. This improvement reflects more efficient marketing returns as Casper expands its product offerings in existing and new categories, increased consumer awareness, a higher returning customer mix, growth in our retail partnership and retail stores and more effective marketing models as we continue to improve our understanding of our consumers.

General and Administrative Expenses

        General and administrative expenses were $123.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of $42.2 million, or 51.9%, compared to $81.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. General and administrative expenses increased as we invested for growth in hiring to support our growing business, particularly in retail stores and product development. We believe innovation is a key differentiator and invest significant resources in research and development to drive product innovation to improve sleep quality. To support these efforts, we increased investment in product development 89.2% to $12.3 million in 2018 from $6.5 million in 2017.

Other Expense, Net

        Other expense, net was $93.0 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2018, a decrease of $2.0 million compared to $2.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2017. The decrease was due to a provision for sales taxes in 2017 that did not recur in 2018.

Income Tax Expense

        Income tax benefit was $39.1 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2018, an increase of $16.1 thousand compared to $23.0 thousand for the year ended December 31, 2017. The increase in income tax was immaterial.

Quarterly Results of Operations

        The following tables set forth our unaudited quarterly consolidated statements of operations data in dollars and as a percentage of revenue for the periods presented. Our unaudited quarterly consolidated statements of operations data were prepared in accordance with GAAP on the same basis as our audited consolidated financial statements and include, in the opinion of management, all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, that are necessary for the fair presentation of the financial information set forth in such data. The sum of quarterly periods may not equal full year or year to date amounts. Our historical results are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected in the future and operating results for interim periods are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for a full year. You should read this data together with our consolidated financial statements and related notes appearing elsewhere in this prospectus.

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        The following table sets forth our unaudited quarterly consolidated results of operations data in dollars for each of the periods indicated:

 
  Three Months Ended  
(in thousands)
  Dec 31,
2017
  Mar 31,
2018
  June 30,
2018
  Sept 30,
2018
  Dec 31,
2018
  Mar 31,
2019
  June 30,
2019
  Sept 30,
2019
 
 
  (unaudited)
 

Revenue, net

  $ 73,982   $ 74,946   $ 81,639   $ 103,102   $ 98,204   $ 89,437   $ 95,227   $ 127,655  

Cost of goods sold

    41,520     43,400     44,224     55,932     56,583     45,865     48,535     62,942  

Gross profit

    32,462     31,546     37,415     47,170     41,621     43,572     46,692     64,713  

Operating expenses

                                                 

Sales and marketing expenses

    29,056     28,840     28,080     35,785     33,484     29,605     39,838     44,550  

General and administrative expense

    28,469     27,630     29,822     30,714     35,357     30,884     33,250     41,992  

Total operating expenses

    57,525     56,470     57,902     66,499     68,841     60,489     73,088     86,542  

Loss from operations

    (25,063 )   (24,924 )   (20,487 )   (19,329 )   (27,220 )   (16,917 )   (26,396 )   (21,829 )

Other (income) expense

                                                 

Interest (income) expense

    (358 )   (279 )   (177 )   (47 )   255     257     285     813  

Other (income) expense, net

    185     (5 )   (104 )   58     392     275     279     287  

Total other (income) expenses, net

    (173 )   (284 )   (281 )   11     647     532     564     1,100  

Loss before income taxes

    (24,890 )   (24,640 )   (20,206 )   (19,340 )   (27,867 )   (17,449 )   (26,960 )   (22,929 )

Income tax (benefit) expense

    24     13     14     18     (6 )       (33 )   93  

Net loss

    (24,914 )   (24,653 )   (20,220 )   (19,358 )   (27,861 )   (17,449 )   (26,927 )   (23,022 )

Other comprehensive income (loss)

                                                 

Currency translation adjustment

    60     (18 )   (974 )   (296 )   211     (6 )   101     (20 )

Total comprehensive loss

  $ (24,854 ) $ (24,671 ) $ (21,194 ) $ (19,654 ) $ (27,650 ) $ (17,455 ) $ (26,826 ) $ (23,042 )

        The following table sets forth our unaudited quarterly consolidated results of operations data for each of the periods indicated as a percentage of total revenue.

 
  Three Months Ended  
(as a percentage of Revenue, net)
  Dec 31,
2017
  Mar 31,
2018
  June 30,
2018
  Sept 30,
2018
  Dec 31,
2018
  Mar 31,
2019
  June 30,
2019
  Sept 30,
2019
 
 
  (unaudited)
 

Revenue, net

    100.0 %   100.0 %   100.0 %   100.0 %   100.0 %   100.0 %   100.0 %   100.0 %

Cost of goods sold

    56.1 %   57.9 %   54.2 %   54.2 %   57.6 %   51.3 %   51.0 %   49.3 %

Gross profit

    43.9 %   42.1 %   45.8 %   45.8 %   42.4 %   48.7 %   49.0 %   50.7 %

Operating expenses

                                                 

Sales and marketing expenses

    39.3 %   38.5 %   34.4 %   34.7 %   34.1 %   33.1 %   41.8 %   34.9 %

General and administrative expense

    38.5 %   36.9 %   36.5 %   29.8 %   36.0 %   34.5 %   34.9 %   32.9 %

Total operating expenses

    77.8 %   75.3 %   70.9 %   64.5 %   70.1 %   67.6 %   76.8 %   67.8 %

Loss from operations

    (33.9 %)   (33.3 %)   (25.1 %)   (18.7 %)   (27.7 %)   (18.9 %)   (27.7 %)   (17.1 %)

Other (income) expense